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      Testing the generalized validity of the Emotion Knowledge test scores

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      PLoS ONE

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          Abstract

          Differential item functioning (DIF) is of the utmost importance in order to corroborate the generalized validity of test scores in different groups. DIF indicates that an item does not function equally in different groups such as age, gender or cultural ones. Our objective was to contrast the generalized validity of the Emotion Knowledge (EK) test scores in a heterogeneous Argentinian sample composed of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18–65). Data from the original validation sample (200 Spanish participants, half of them males) were conjointly analyzed (total n = 400). Results of the Rasch Model (RM) analysis indicated that both fit to the RM and reliability ( ISR = .97, PSR = .80) were adequate. Item logit measures ranged from -3.89 to 3.68, and person logit measures ranged from -1.12 to 5.09, with a mean value of 2.36. DIF was tested for gender, age, educational level and country, with a few item contrasts found to be statistically significant. Even though small significant differences in EK scores were associated with educational level ( d = .25) and country ( d = -.25), they became non-significant after removing the seven country-related DIF affected items. We can conclude that there is enough evidence for the generalized validity of EK test scores in Argentina. Given that recent theories of human emotion consider conceptual knowledge supported by language as constitutive of emotions, the EK test can be used in academic or applied settings where individual differences in emotional competence might be relevant.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Choosing Prediction Over Explanation in Psychology: Lessons From Machine Learning.

          Psychology has historically been concerned, first and foremost, with explaining the causal mechanisms that give rise to behavior. Randomized, tightly controlled experiments are enshrined as the gold standard of psychological research, and there are endless investigations of the various mediating and moderating variables that govern various behaviors. We argue that psychology's near-total focus on explaining the causes of behavior has led much of the field to be populated by research programs that provide intricate theories of psychological mechanism but that have little (or unknown) ability to predict future behaviors with any appreciable accuracy. We propose that principles and techniques from the field of machine learning can help psychology become a more predictive science. We review some of the fundamental concepts and tools of machine learning and point out examples where these concepts have been used to conduct interesting and important psychological research that focuses on predictive research questions. We suggest that an increased focus on prediction, rather than explanation, can ultimately lead us to greater understanding of behavior.
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            Solving the emotion paradox: categorization and the experience of emotion.

            In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe that they know an emotion when they see it, and as a consequence assume that emotions are discrete events that can be recognized with some degree of accuracy, but scientists have yet to produce a set of clear and consistent criteria for indicating when an emotion is present and when it is not. I propose one solution to this paradox: People experience an emotion when they conceptualize an instance of affective feeling. In this view, the experience of emotion is an act of categorization, guided by embodied knowledge about emotion. The result is a model of emotion experience that has much in common with the social psychological literature on person perception and with literature on embodied conceptual knowledge as it has recently been applied to social psychology.
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              What is Meant by Calling Emotions Basic

               P Ekman,  D. Cordaro (2011)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                14 November 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
                [2 ] Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                University of Copenhagen, DENMARK
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-34220
                10.1371/journal.pone.0207335
                6235310
                30427923
                © 2018 Delgado et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 11
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003329, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad;
                Award ID: PSI2014-52369-P
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) under Grant PSI2014-52369-P to Ana R. Delgado. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Happiness
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Happiness
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Sociology
                Education
                Educational Attainment
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Argentina
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Language
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                Europe
                European Union
                Spain
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Intelligence
                Human Intelligence
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Intelligence
                Human Intelligence
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Intelligence
                Human Intelligence
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                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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