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      Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

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          Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects.

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          Mammalian drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family: an overview.

          Active drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC)-containing family of proteins have a major impact on the pharmacological behavior of most of the drugs in use today. Pharmacological properties affected by ABC transporters include the oral bioavailability, hepatobiliary, direct intestinal, and urinary excretion of drugs and drug-metabolites and -conjugates. Moreover, the penetration of drugs into a range of important pharmacological sanctuaries, such as brain, testis, and fetus, and the penetration into specific cell- and tissue compartments can be extensively limited by ABC transporters. These interactions with ABC transporters determine to a large extent the clinical usefulness, side effects and toxicity risks of drugs. Many other xenotoxins, (pre-)carcinogens and endogenous compounds are also influenced by the ABC transporters, with corresponding consequences for the well-being of the individual. We aim to provide an overview of properties of the mammalian ABC transporters known to mediate significant transport of clinically relevant drugs.
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              Multidrug resistance proteins: role of P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP (ABCG2) in tissue defense.

              In tumor cell lines, multidrug resistance is often associated with an ATP-dependent decrease in cellular drug accumulation which is attributed to the overexpression of certain ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC proteins that confer drug resistance include (but are not limited to) P-glycoprotein (gene symbol ABCB1), the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, gene symbol ABCC1), MRP2 (gene symbol ABCC2), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2). In addition to their role in drug resistance, there is substantial evidence that these efflux pumps have overlapping functions in tissue defense. Collectively, these proteins are capable of transporting a vast and chemically diverse array of toxicants including bulky lipophilic cationic, anionic, and neutrally charged drugs and toxins as well as conjugated organic anions that encompass dietary and environmental carcinogens, pesticides, metals, metalloids, and lipid peroxidation products. P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP/ABCG2 are expressed in tissues important for absorption (e.g., lung and gut) and metabolism and elimination (liver and kidney). In addition, these transporters have an important role in maintaining the barrier function of sanctuary site tissues (e.g., blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebral spinal fluid barrier, blood-testis barrier and the maternal-fetal barrier or placenta). Thus, these ABC transporters are increasingly recognized for their ability to modulate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of xenobiotics. In this review, the role of these four ABC transporter proteins in protecting tissues from a variety of toxicants is discussed. Species variations in substrate specificity and tissue distribution of these transporters are also addressed since these properties have implications for in vivo models of toxicity used for drug discovery and development.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                22 March 2012
                : 7
                : 1551-1572
                [1 ]Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
                [2 ]Pharmacology Laboratory, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
                [3 ]II Medical Clinic, Hospital Coburg, University of Wurzburg, Coburg, Germany
                [4 ]Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, FL
                [5 ]Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Patra, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Paul Zarogoulidis, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, Tel +30 69 7727 1974, Fax +30 23 1099 2433, Email pzarog@ 123456hotmail.com
                © 2012 Zarogoulidis et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Molecular medicine

                transducers, carriers, inhaled chemotherapy


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