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      Epidemiology and aetiology of paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest in England and Wales

      , , , ,

      Archives of Disease in Childhood

      BMJ

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To describe the epidemiology and aetiology of paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) in England and Wales.

          Design

          Population-based analysis of the UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database.

          Patients and setting

          All paediatric and adolescent patients with TCA recorded on the TARN database for a 10-year period (2006–2015).

          Measures

          Patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), location of TCA (‘prehospital only’, ‘in-hospital only’ or ‘both’), interventions performed and outcome.

          Results

          21 710 paediatric patients were included in the database; 129 (0.6%) sustained TCA meeting study inclusion criteria. The majority, 103 (79.8%), had a prehospital TCA. 62.8% were male, with a median age of 11.7 (3.4–16.6) years, and a median ISS of 34 (25–45). 110 (85.3%) had blunt injuries, with road-traffic collision the most common mechanism (n=73, 56.6%). 123 (95.3%) had severe haemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. Overall 30-day survival was 5.4% ((95% CI 2.6 to 10.8), n=7). ‘Pre-hospital only’ TCA was associated with significantly higher survival (n=6) than those with TCA in both ‘pre-hospital and in-hospital’ (n=1)—13.0% (95% CI 6.1% to 25.7%) and 1.2% (95% CI 0.1% to 6.4%), respectively, p<0.05. The greatest survival (n=6, 10.3% (95% CI 4.8% to 20.8%)) was observed in those transported to a paediatric major trauma centre (MTC) (defined as either a paediatric-only MTC or combined adult-paediatric MTC).

          Conclusions

          Survival is possible from the resuscitation of children in TCA, with overall survival comparable to that reported in adults. The highest survival was observed in those with a pre-hospital only TCA, and those who were transported to an MTC. Early identification and aggressive management of paediatric TCA is advocated.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 16

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          European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: Electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution.

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            Out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: an epidemiologic review and assessment of current knowledge.

            We systematically summarize pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest epidemiology and assess knowledge of effects of specific out-of-hospital interventions. We conducted a comprehensive review of published articles from 1966 to 2004, available through MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EmBase, and the Cochrane Registry, describing outcomes of children younger than 18 years with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Patient characteristics, process of care, and outcomes were compared using pediatric Utstein outcome report guidelines. Effects of out-of-hospital care processes on survival outcomes were summarized. Forty-one studies met inclusion criteria; 8 complied with Utstein reporting guidelines. Included in the review were 5,363 patients: 12.1% survived to hospital discharge, and 4% survived neurologically intact. Trauma patients (n=2,299) had greater overall survival (21.9%, 6.8% intact); a separate examination of studies with more rigorous cardiac arrest definition showed poorer survival (1.1% overall, 0.3% neurologically intact). Submersion injury-associated arrests (n=442) had greater overall survival (22.7%, 6% intact). Pooled data analysis of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and witnessed arrest status showed increased likelihood of survival (relative risk 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.54 to 2.57) for witnessed arrests. The effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation is difficult to determine because of study heterogeneity. Outcomes from out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest are generally poor. Variability may exist in survival by patient subgroups, but differences are hard to accurately characterize. Conformity with Utstein guidelines for reporting and research design is incomplete. Witnessed arrest status remains associated with improved survival. The need for prospective controlled trials remains a high priority.
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              Validity of a pediatric version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.

              The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and its most recent revision, the GOS-Extended (GOS-E), provide the gold standard for measuring traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. The GOS-E exhibits validity when used with adults and some adolescents, but validity with younger children is not established. Because the GOS-E lacks the developmental specificity necessary to evaluate children, toddlers, and infants, we modified the original version to create the GOS-E Pediatric Revision (GOS-E Peds), a developmentally appropriate structured interview, to classify younger patients. The criterion, predictive, and discriminant validity of the GOS-E Peds was measured in 159 subjects following TBI (mild: 36%; moderate: 12%; severe: 50%) at 3 and 6 months after injury. Participants were included from two studies completed at the Pediatric Neurotrauma Center at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. We assessed the relationship among GOS-E Peds, the GOS, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as well as other standardized measures of functional, behavioral, intellectual, and neuropsychological outcome. Premorbid function was assessed 24-36 h after injury. The GOS-E Peds showed a strong correlation with the GOS at 3 and 6 month time points. Criterion-related validity was also indicated by GOS-E Peds' association with most measures at both time points and at injury severity levels. The 3 month GOS-E Peds was associated with the 6 month GOS-E Peds, everyday function, behavior, and most cognitive abilities. Discriminant validity is suggested by weak correlations between both 3 and 6 month GOS-E Peds and premorbid measures. The GOS-E Peds is sensitive to severity of injury and is associated with changes in TBI sequelae over time. This pediatric revision provides a valid outcome measure in infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents through age 16. Findings support using the GOS-E Peds as the primary outcome variable in pediatric clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Disease in Childhood
                Arch Dis Child
                BMJ
                0003-9888
                1468-2044
                April 18 2019
                May 2019
                May 2019
                September 27 2018
                : 104
                : 5
                : 437-443
                Article
                10.1136/archdischild-2018-314985
                © 2018

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