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      Children with Type 2 Diabetes: The Risks of Complications

      ,

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Sulphonylurea, Insulin, Treatment, Type 2 diabetes, Children, Metformin

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          Abstract

          Type 2 diabetes is an increasing problem in children. Two decades ago it had been described only in selected groups, e.g. the Pima Indians. Childhood type 2 diabetes appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in adults and is characterized by obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. It can present a diagnostic challenge in children, as they can present with diabetic ketoacidosis; the measurement of autoantibodies and C-peptide levels may be helpful. The logarithmic association between the risk of complications with increasing glycaemia which has been established for adults with type 2 diabetes is likely to hold true for children but the conclusions of trials in adults must be extrapolated with caution. Little is known about the onset and progression of macrovascular disease in affected children but it is almost certain that they will develop an excess of premature cardiovascular disease. However, the importance of reducing glycaemia in younger adults with diabetes, in order to minimize the incidence of microvascular complications, has been unequivocally demonstrated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Diet and exercise have a major role to play in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes in children as well as adults – the escalation of type 2 diabetes throughout the developed world is a major public health problem. Extrapolating data from adults, metformin appears to be the logical first-line treatment in children with type 2 diabetes; sulphonylureas are also used but neither of these agents have been evaluated in trials in children and are not licensed for such use. With regard to other newer agents, it seems wise to use well-established drugs with a long track record and for which the long-term safety data are available.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          Horm Res Paediatr
          10.1159/issn.1663-2818
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-7415-0
          978-3-318-00844-9
          1663-2818
          1663-2826
          2002
          2002
          17 November 2004
          : 57
          : Suppl 1
          : 34-39
          Affiliations
          Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford, UK
          Article
          53310 Horm Res 2002;57(suppl 1):34–39
          10.1159/000053310
          11979020
          © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 13, Pages: 6
          Categories
          Session 2: Type 2 Diabetes and MODY

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