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      Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 9

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      Italian Botanist

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this contribution, new data concerning the distribution of vascular flora alien to Italy are presented. It includes new records, confirmations, exclusions, and status changes for Italy or for Italian administrative regions. Furthermore, three new combinations are proposed. Nomenclatural and distribution updates published elsewhere are provided as Suppl. material 1.

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          A genomic variation map provides insights into the genetic basis of cucumber domestication and diversity.

          Most fruits in our daily diet are the products of domestication and breeding. Here we report a map of genome variation for a major fruit that encompasses ~3.6 million variants, generated by deep resequencing of 115 cucumber lines sampled from 3,342 accessions worldwide. Comparative analysis suggests that fruit crops underwent narrower bottlenecks during domestication than grain crops. We identified 112 putative domestication sweeps; 1 of these regions contains a gene involved in the loss of bitterness in fruits, an essential domestication trait of cucumber. We also investigated the genomic basis of divergence among the cultivated populations and discovered a natural genetic variant in a β-carotene hydroxylase gene that could be used to breed cucumbers with enhanced nutritional value. The genomic history of cucumber evolution uncovered here provides the basis for future genomics-enabled breeding.
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            International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

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              Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers.

              Two elm taxa occur naturally in the Iberian Peninsula: the Field elm (Ulmus minor) and the Wych elm (U. glabra). In addition, a third taxon, the foreign Siberian elm (U. pumila), was probably introduced in the 16th century as an ornamental tree and has spread spontaneously throughout the Peninsula. The natural hybridization between U. minor and U. pumila produced new individuals whose morphological traits appear to be mixed. Ulmus pumila, as well as its hybrids, has a high resistance to Dutch elm disease (DED). For this reason, it is commonly used in breeding programmes. Extensive hybridization and the high mortality produced by the last DED epidemic have endangered the conservation of the native elm. In this study, isozyme analyses are used to characterize the taxa U. minor and U. pumila. Siberian elms from Spain and China are compared with the native U. minor. Siberian elm produces isozyme patterns that completely differentiate it from U. minor. Three loci are completely different between the species: 6Pgd2, Mdh1 and Prx2. Isozyme markers can also be used to distinguish native elms from the hybrids that have evolved for generations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Italian Botanist
                IB
                Pensoft Publishers
                2531-4033
                May 13 2020
                May 13 2020
                : 9
                : 71-86
                Article
                10.3897/italianbotanist.9.53401
                © 2020

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