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      False negative chest X-Rays in patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia and corresponding chest CT findings

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          Abstract

          Due to the wide availability, rapid execution, low cost, and possibility of being acquired at the patient's bed, chest X-Ray is a fundamental tool in the diagnosis, follow-up and evaluation of the treatment effectiveness of patients with pneumonia, also in the context of COVID-19 infection. However, false negative cases are possible.

          We report 4 cases of false negative chest X-Rays, in patients who were diagnosed positive for COVID-19 by real-time transverse-transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and executed chest unenhanced CTs just after the X-Rays, demonstrating signs of COVID-19 pneumonia.

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          Most cited references16

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          Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

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            Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases

            Background Chest CT is used for diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic value and consistency of chest CT as compared with comparison to RT-PCR assay in COVID-19. Methods From January 6 to February 6, 2020, 1014 patients in Wuhan, China who underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR tests were included. With RT-PCR as reference standard, the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed. Besides, for patients with multiple RT-PCR assays, the dynamic conversion of RT-PCR results (negative to positive, positive to negative, respectively) was analyzed as compared with serial chest CT scans for those with time-interval of 4 days or more. Results Of 1014 patients, 59% (601/1014) had positive RT-PCR results, and 88% (888/1014) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT in suggesting COVID-19 was 97% (95%CI, 95-98%, 580/601 patients) based on positive RT-PCR results. In patients with negative RT-PCR results, 75% (308/413) had positive chest CT findings; of 308, 48% were considered as highly likely cases, with 33% as probable cases. By analysis of serial RT-PCR assays and CT scans, the mean interval time between the initial negative to positive RT-PCR results was 5.1 ± 1.5 days; the initial positive to subsequent negative RT-PCR result was 6.9 ± 2.3 days). 60% to 93% of cases had initial positive CT consistent with COVID-19 prior (or parallel) to the initial positive RT-PCR results. 42% (24/57) cases showed improvement in follow-up chest CT scans before the RT-PCR results turning negative. Conclusion Chest CT has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19. Chest CT may be considered as a primary tool for the current COVID-19 detection in epidemic areas. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. - ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.
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              Time Course of Lung Changes On Chest CT During Recovery From 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia

              Background Chest CT is used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. Purpose To determine the change in chest CT findings associated with COVID-19 pneumonia from initial diagnosis until patient recovery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection presenting between 12 January 2020 to 6 February 2020. Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded. Repeat Chest CT was obtained at approximately 4 day intervals. The total CT score was the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, score 1-5 for each lobe, range, 0 none, 25 maximum) was determined. Results Twenty one patients (6 males and 15 females, age 25-63 years) with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. These patients under went a total of 82 pulmonary CT scans with a mean interval of 4±1 days (range: 1-8 days). All patients were discharged after a mean hospitalized period of 17±4 days (range: 11-26 days). Maximum lung involved peaked at approximately 10 days (with the calculated total CT score of 6) from the onset of initial symptoms (R2=0.25), p<0.001). Based on quartiles of patients from day 0 to day 26 involvement, 4 stages of lung CT were defined: Stage 1 (0-4 days): ground glass opacities (GGO) in 18/24 (75%) patients with the total CT score of 2±2; (2)Stage-2 (5-8d days): increased crazy-paving pattern 9/17 patients (53%) with a increase in total CT score (6±4, p=0.002); (3) Stage-3 (9-13days): consolidation 19/21 (91%) patients with the peak of total CT score (7±4); (4) Stage-4 (≥14 days): gradual resolution of consolidation 15/20 (75%) patients with a decreased total CT score (6±4) without crazy-paving pattern. Conclusion In patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia (without severe respiratory distress during the disease course), lung abnormalities on chest CT showed greatest severity approximately 10 days after initial onset of symptoms.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Radiography (Lond)
                Radiography (Lond)
                Radiography (London, England : 1995)
                Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The College of Radiographers.
                1078-8174
                1532-2831
                11 May 2020
                11 May 2020
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Radiology, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, P.zza Principessa Clotilde, 3, 20121, Milan, Italy
                [b ]Post-graduate School in Radiodiagnostics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Radiology, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, P.zza Principessa Clotilde, 3, 20121, Milan, Italy. michaela.cellina@ 123456asst-fbf-sacco.it
                Article
                S1078-8174(20)30069-9
                10.1016/j.radi.2020.04.017
                7211752
                32423842
                673d00ea-6751-4976-b3a2-fe448d73220c
                © 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The College of Radiographers.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 24 April 2020
                : 29 April 2020
                : 30 April 2020
                Categories
                Article

                pneumonia,viral,multidetector computed tomography,covid-19,severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2,radiography

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