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      ISPMD consensus on the management of premenstrual disorders

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          Abstract

          The second consensus meeting of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) took place in London during March 2011. The primary goal was to evaluate the published evidence and consider the expert opinions of the ISPMD members to reach a consensus on advice for the management of premenstrual disorders. Gynaecologists, psychiatrists, psychologists and pharmacologists each formally presented the evidence within their area of expertise; this was followed by an in-depth discussion leading to consensus recommendations. This article provides a comprehensive review of the outcomes from the meeting. The group discussed and agreed that careful diagnosis based on the recommendations and classification derived from the first ISPMD consensus conference is essential and should underlie the appropriate management strategy. Options for the management of premenstrual disorders fall under two broad categories, (a) those influencing central nervous activity, particularly the modulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin and (b) those that suppress ovulation. Psychotropic medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, probably acts by dampening the influence of sex steroids on the brain. Oral contraceptives, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol and estradiol all most likely function by ovulation suppression. The role of oophorectomy was also considered in this respect. Alternative therapies are also addressed, with, e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, calcium supplements and Vitex agnus castus warranting further exploration.

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          Most cited references86

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          GABA A receptors: subtypes provide diversity of function and pharmacology.

          This mini-review attempts to update experimental evidence on the existence of GABA(A) receptor pharmacological subtypes and to produce a list of those native receptors that exist. GABA(A) receptors are chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission. They are members of the Cys-loop pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) superfamily and share structural and functional homology with other members of that family. They are assembled from a family of 19 homologous subunit gene products and form numerous receptor subtypes with properties that depend upon subunit composition, mostly hetero-oligomeric. These vary in their regulation and developmental expression, and importantly, in brain regional, cellular, and subcellular localization, and thus their role in brain circuits and behaviors. We propose several criteria for including a receptor hetero-oligomeric subtype candidate on a list of native subtypes, and a working GABA(A) receptor list. These criteria can be applied to all the members of the LGIC superfamily. The list is divided into three categories of native receptor subtypes: "Identified", "Existence with High Probability", and "Tentative", and currently includes 26 members, but will undoubtedly grow, with future information. This list was first presented by Olsen & Sieghart (in press).
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            Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome.

            The symptoms of women with premenstrual syndrome improve in response to suppression of ovarian function, although these women have no evidence of ovarian dysfunction. We undertook a study to determine the role of estrogen and progesterone in this syndrome. We first studied the effect of ovarian suppression with leuprolide, an agonist analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or placebo on symptoms in 20 women with the premenstrual syndrome. Ten women whose symptoms improved during leuprolide treatment were given estradiol and progesterone in a double-blind, crossover design, each for four weeks, during continued leuprolide administration. Women without premenstrual syndrome (normal women) participated in a similar protocol. Outcomes were assessed on the basis of daily self-reports by the patients and biweekly rater-administered symptom-rating scales. The 10 women with premenstrual syndrome who were given leuprolide had a significant decrease in symptoms as compared with base-line values and with values for the 10 women who were given placebo. The 10 women with premenstrual syndrome who were given leuprolide plus estradiol or progesterone had a significant recurrence of symptoms, but no changes in mood occurred in 15 normal women who received the same regimen or in 5 women with premenstrual syndrome who were given placebo hormone during continued leuprolide administration. In women with premenstrual syndrome, the occurrence of symptoms represents an abnormal response to normal hormonal changes.
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              Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: evidence for a new category for DSM-5.

              Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which affects 2%–5% of premenopausal women, was included in Appendix B of DSMIV, "Criterion Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study." Since then, aided by the inclusion of specific and rigorous criteria in DSM-IV, there has been an explosion of research on the epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the disorder. In 2009, the Mood Disorders Work Group for DSM-5 convened a group of experts to examine the literature on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and provide recommendations regarding the appropriate criteria and placement for the disorder in DSM-5. Based on thorough review and lengthy discussion, the work group proposed that the information on the diagnosis, treatment, and validation of the disorder has matured sufficiently for it to qualify as a full category in DSM-5. A move to the position of category, rather than a criterion set in need of further study, will provide greater legitimacy for the disorder and encourage the growth of evidence-based research, ultimately leading to new treatments.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Women's Mental Health
                Arch Womens Ment Health
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1434-1816
                1435-1102
                August 2013
                April 27 2013
                August 2013
                : 16
                : 4
                : 279-291
                Article
                10.1007/s00737-013-0346-y
                3955202
                23624686
                673f5ce1-b18e-4c5a-9328-e4746e5dbac5
                © 2013

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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