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      Seroprevalence rates of antibodies againstLeishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs Translated title: Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Leishmania infantum e outras espécies de protozoários e rickettsia em cães

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          Abstract

          Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of Brazil. The present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to analyze L. infantum,Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis,Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninuminfection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The seroprevalence rates of anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies were 37.6%, 75.3%, 72%, 47.3% and 6.4%, respectively. In addition to IFAT, direct microscopic examination of popliteal lymph node aspirates revealed 26.9% of CVL positive dogs. Serological tests revealed that 17.2% of the dogs were seropositive for a single parasite, 29% for two parasites, 33% for three, 16.1% for four, and 1.1% for five parasites, while 3.2% were seronegative for five parasites. The presence of antibodies against these parasites in serum samples from dogs confirmed their exposure to these parasites in this rural area. Because of the potential zoonotic risk of these diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, ehrlichiosis and toxoplasmosis, special attention should focus on programs for the improvement of diagnostic assays and control measures against these parasites.

          Translated abstract

          Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) é causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum, podendo infectar cães e humanos em várias regiões do Brasil. O presente estudo teve por objetivo realizar a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) para analisar os índices de infecção parasitária para L. infantum,Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis,Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, em 93 amostras de soro de cães de um assentamento rural no município de Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil. A taxa de soroprevalência de cães com anticorpos anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum foi de 37,6%, 75,3%, 72%, 47,3% e 6,4%, respectivamente. Pelo exame microscópico direto dos parasitas nos esfregaços de aspirados de linfonodos poplíteos dos cães, a positividade para LVC foi de 26,9%. Pelos exames sorológicos, 17,2% dos cães estavam positivos com um único parasita, 29% com dois, 33% com três, 16,1% com quatro e 1,1% com cinco parasitas. Além disso, 3,2% eram soronegativos para todos os cinco agentes parasitários. A presença de anticorpos aos parasitos em amostras sorológicas confirmam a exposição dos cães às doenças parasitárias nesse assentamento rural. Devido ao potencial risco zoonótico destas doenças, principalmente leishmaniose, erliquiose e toxoplasmose, atenção especial deve ser dada aos programas que objetivam o aprimoramento de testes diagnósticos e de medidas de controle dessas parasitoses.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives.

           P Desjeux (2004)
          Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of treatment. Anthroponotic VL foci are of special concern as they are at the origin of frequent and deathly epidemics (e.g. Sudan). Leishmaniasis burden remains important: 88 countries, 350 million people at risk, 500,000 new cases of VL per year, 1-1.5 million for CL and DALYs: 2.4 millions. Most of the burden is concentrated on few countries which allows clear geographic priorities. Leishmaniasis is still an important public health problem due to not only environmental risk factors such as massive migrations, urbanisation, deforestation, new irrigation schemes, but also to individual risk factors: HIV, malnutrition, genetic, etc em leader Leishmaniasis is part of those diseases which still requires improved control tools. Consequently WHO/TDR research for leishmaniasis has been more and more focusing on the development of new tools such as diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines. The ongoing effort has already produced significant results. The newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas. In anthroponotic foci, the feasibility of getting a strong impact on mortality, morbidity and transmission, is high.
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            Leishmaniasis and poverty.

            Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, has strong but complex links with poverty. The burden of leishmaniasis falls disproportionately on the poorest segments of the global population. Within endemic areas, increased infection risk is mediated through poor housing conditions and environmental sanitation, lack of personal protective measures and economically driven migration and employment that bring nonimmune hosts into contact with infected sand flies. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and other infectious diseases, which increase the risk that a person (once infected) will progress to the clinically manifested disease. Lack of healthcare access causes delays in appropriate diagnosis and treatment and accentuates leishmaniasis morbidity and mortality, particularly in women. Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment are expensive and families must sell assets and take loans to pay for care, leading to further impoverishment and reinforcement of the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty.
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              The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control.

              Leishmaniases are a complex of world-wide diseases with a range of clinical and epidemiological features caused by Leishmania spp. of protozoan parasites. Among 15 well-recognised Leishmania species known to infect humans, 13 have zoonotic nature, which include agents of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms of the disease in both the Old and New Worlds. Currently, leishmaniases show a wider geographic distribution and increased global incidence of human disease than previously known. Environmental, demographic and human behavioural factors contribute to the changing landscape of leishmaniasis, which includes increasing risk factors for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniases and new scenarios associated with the zoonotic visceral leishmaniases. The latter consist of the northward spread of Leishmania infantum transmission in Europe and America, the identification of unusual mammal hosts, and the decline of HIV-Leishmania co-infections in southern Europe following the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy. Few advances have been made in the surveillance and control of the zoonotic leishmaniasis, however a number of tools have been developed for the control of the canine reservoir of L. infantum. These include: (i) several canine vaccine candidates, in particular an FML Leishmania enriched fraction showing good clinical protection, has been registered in Brazil for veterinary use; (ii) a number of insecticide-based preparations have been specifically registered for dog protection against sand fly bites. Laboratory and field studies have shown improved efficacy of these preparations for both individual and mass protection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbpv
                Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária
                Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária (Jaboticabal )
                1984-2961
                March 2013
                : 22
                : 1
                : 162-166
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP Brasil
                [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP Brasil
                [3 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP Brasil
                [4 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [5 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP Brasil
                Article
                S1984-29612013000100162
                10.1590/S1984-29612013000100031

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                PARASITOLOGY
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

                Parasitology, General veterinary medicine

                Leishmania, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Toxoplasma, Neospora, dogs, cães

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