In the present study, the influence of surface modification treatments such as alkali, silane and Ca(OH) 2 on luffa fiber reinforced composites has been investigated. In addition, the design of experiment and Taguchi method were used for optimizing the wear resistance of composites. Statistical regression analysis was also used to develop mathematical model for specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. The dry sliding wear tests were conducted through pin-on-disc equipment as per ASTM G99 for the varying sliding velocity. Surface modifications of luffa fiber reinforced composites such as NaOH, Silane and Ca(OH) 2 cause an increase wear resistance. It was observed that the Ca(OH) 2 treatment to luffa fiber improves wear resistance significantly compared to NaOH and silane treatment. In particular, luffa fiber (with 30 wt.%) reinforced composites at a normal load of 10 N have higher wear resistance among other Ca(OH) 2 treated composites. Depending upon load, velocity of sliding and sliding distance, fiber weight percentage used in this study, wear resistance can be ranked as Ca(OH) 2> Silane >NaOH> untreated luffa fiber reinforced composites. The worn surface morphologies of composites with different condition are discussed. The developed statistical regression mathematical equations predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. It is noted that the developed model may be used to successfully predict the tribological behavior of luffa fiber reinforced composites.