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      The Immunologic Role of IL-17 in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Pathogenesis

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          Abstract

          Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease that is pathogenically driven by proinflammatory cytokines. This article reviews the immunologic role of interleukin (IL)-17, the major effector cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease, along with the rationale for targeting the IL-17 cytokine family (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17 receptor A) in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Emerging evidence indicates that major sources of IL-17A in patients with psoriatic disease are mast cells, γδ T cells, αβ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells in lesional skin and synovial fluid. Within the skin and joints, IL-17A acts on cellular targets, including keratinocytes, neutrophils, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, to stimulate production of various antimicrobial peptides, chemokines, and proinflammatory and proliferative cytokines, which, in turn, promote tissue inflammation and bone remodeling. The critical importance of the IL-23/IL-17A axis to the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease has resulted in many new biologic treatments targeting these cytokines. These biologics dramatically improve skin and joint symptoms in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

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          Most cited references 92

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          IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo.

          We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression. The induction of these cytokines resulted in Th2-like responses marked by increased serum IgE, IgG(1), and IgA levels, blood eosinophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs and digestive tract that included eosinophilic infiltrates, increased mucus production, and epithelial cell hyperplasia/hypertrophy. In addition, our studies show that IL-25 induces Th2-type cytokine production by accessory cells that are MHC class II(high), CD11c(dull), and lineage(-). These results suggest that IL-25, derived from Th2 T cells, is capable of amplifying allergic type inflammatory responses by its actions on other cell types.
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            A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses.

            Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been described as a T helper cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)2 cells, with specific functions in antimicrobial defense and autoimmunity. The factors driving human T(H)-17 differentiation remain controversial. Using a systematic approach combining experimental and computational methods, we show here that transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 (IL-23) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) were all essential for human T(H)-17 differentiation. However, individual T(H)-17 cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-17, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6, as well as the global T(H)-17 cytokine profile, were differentially modulated by T(H)-17-promoting cytokines. Transforming growth factor-beta was critical, and its absence induced a shift from a T(H)-17 profile to a T(H)1-like profile. Our results shed new light on the regulation of human T(H)-17 differentiation and provide a framework for the global analysis of T helper responses.
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              Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

              Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (503) 245-1525 , ablauvelt@oregonmedicalresearch.com
                Journal
                Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
                Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
                Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
                Springer US (New York )
                1080-0549
                1559-0267
                14 August 2018
                14 August 2018
                2018
                : 55
                : 3
                : 379-390
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.477719.b, Oregon Medical Research Center, ; 9495 SW Locust St, Suite G, Portland, OR, 97223 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1757 3729, GRID grid.5395.a, Dermatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Translational Medicine, , University of Pisa, ; Pisa, Italy
                Article
                8702
                10.1007/s12016-018-8702-3
                6244934
                30109481
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

                Immunology

                psoriasis, il-17a, il-17f, il-17 receptor a, innate immunity, adaptive immunity

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