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      Mechanisms of Plant Responses and Adaptation to Soil Salinity


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          Soil salinity is a major environmental stress that restricts the growth and yield of crops. Understanding the physiological, metabolic, and biochemical responses of plants to salt stress and mining the salt tolerance-associated genetic resource in nature will be extremely important for us to cultivate salt-tolerant crops. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the mechanisms of salt stress responses in plants, including salt stress-triggered physiological responses, oxidative stress, salt stress sensing and signaling pathways, organellar stress, ion homeostasis, hormonal and gene expression regulation, metabolic changes, as well as salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes. Important questions regarding salt tolerance that need to be addressed in the future are discussed.

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          Mechanisms of salinity tolerance.

          The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of mature leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity are of three distinct types: osmotic stress tolerance, Na(+) or Cl() exclusion, and the tolerance of tissue to accumulated Na(+) or Cl(). Our understanding of the role of the HKT gene family in Na(+) exclusion from leaves is increasing, as is the understanding of the molecular bases for many other transport processes at the cellular level. However, we have a limited molecular understanding of the overall control of Na(+) accumulation and of osmotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. Molecular genetics and functional genomics provide a new opportunity to synthesize molecular and physiological knowledge to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food production and environmental sustainability.
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            Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance

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              Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants.

              As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population.

                Author and article information

                Innovation (N Y)
                Innovation (N Y)
                The Innovation
                24 April 2020
                21 May 2020
                24 April 2020
                : 1
                : 1
                [1 ]Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology and CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaptation and Improvement, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Center of Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
                [4 ]Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
                [5 ]International Research Centre for Environmental Membrane Biology, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, China
                [6 ]Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author czzhao@ 123456psc.ac.cn
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author jkzhu@ 123456sibs.ac.cn
                [∗∗∗ ]Corresponding author sergey.shabala@ 123456utas.edu.au
                S2666-6758(20)30017-5 100017
                © 2020.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


                salt stress,ion homeostasis,halophyte,hormones,oxidative stress,salt stress sensing,osmotic stress


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