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      Local Anesthetics Induce Human Renal Cell Apoptosis

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          Renal cell apoptosis contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in neuronal and lymphocytic cell lines. We examined the effects of chronic (48 h) local anesthetic treatment (lidocaine, bupivacaine and tetracaine) on human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. Apoptosis induction was assessed by detecting poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase fragmentation, caspase activation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, DNA laddering and by cellular morphology. Cell death was quantified by measuring neutral red dye uptake and lactate dehydrogenase released into the cell culture medium. All 3 local anesthetics caused concentration-dependent cell death, induced HK-2 cell apoptosis and potentiated TNF-α induced apoptosis. Local anesthetics induced HK-2 cell apoptosis by activation of caspases 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9. ZVAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked the local anesthetic induced HK-2 cell apoptosis. Local anesthetics also inhibited the activities of anti-apoptotic kinases protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal regulated mitrogen-activated protein kinase. Local anesthetic’s pro-apoptotic effects are independent of sodium channel inhibition as tetrodotoxin, a selective voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, failed to mimic local anesthetic-mediated induction or potentiation of HK-2 cell apoptosis. We conclude that local anesthetics induce human renal cell apoptotic signaling by caspase activation and via inhibition of pro-survival signaling pathways.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF): a ubiquitous mitochondrial oxidoreductase involved in apoptosis.

          Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is encoded by one single gene located on the X chromosome. AIF is ubiquitously expressed, both in normal tissues and in a variety of cancer cell lines. The AIF precursor is synthesized in the cytosol and is imported into mitochondria. The mature AIF protein, a flavoprotein (prosthetic group: flavine adenine dinucleotide) with significant homology to plant ascorbate reductases and bacterial NADH oxidases, is normally confined to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In a variety of different apoptosis-inducing conditions, AIF translocates through the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Ectopic (extra-mitochondrial) AIF induces nuclear chromatin condensation, as well as large scale ( approximately 50 kb) DNA fragmentation. Thus, similar to cytochrome c, AIF is a phylogenetically old, bifunctional protein with an electron acceptor/donor (oxidoreductase) function and a second apoptogenic function. In contrast to cytochrome c, however, AIF acts in a caspase-independent fashion. The molecular mechanisms via which AIF induces apoptosis are discussed.
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            Local Anesthetics and the Inflammatory Response

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              Cytoprotective effect of curcumin in human proximal tubule epithelial cells exposed to shiga toxin.

              We conducted the following experiments to determine whether curcumin, an antioxidant compound extracted from the spice tumeric, inhibits cell death induced by Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 and 2 in HK-2 cells, a human proximal tubule cell line. Cells were incubated for 24-48 h with Stx1 or Stx2, 0-100 ng/ml. Test media contained either no further additives or 10-50 microM curcumin. Exposure to Stx1 and Stx2, 100 ng/ml, reduced cell viability to approximately 25% of control values after 24 h and 20 microM curcumin restored viability to nearly 75% of control. Cell staining confirmed that Stx1 and Stx2-induced damage in HK-2 cells involved a combination of apoptosis and necrosis. Thus, Stx1 caused apoptosis and necrosis in 12.2 +/- 2.2 and 12.7 +/- 0.9% of HK-2 cells, respectively. Similarly, Stx2 caused apoptosis and necrosis in 13.4 +/- 2.1 and 9.0 +/- 0.5% of HK-2 cells, respectively. Addition of 20 microM curcumin decreased the extent of apoptosis and necrosis to 2.9 +/- 2.0 and 3.8 +/- 0.2%, respectively in the presence of Stx1 and to 3.0 +/- 2.1 and 3.9 +/- 0.3%, respectively, for Stx2 (P < 0.01). Stx-induced apoptosis and its inhibition by curcumin were confirmed by DNA gel electrophoresis and by an assay for fragmentation. The protective effect of curcumin against Stx1 and Stx2-induced injury to HK-2 was not related to its antioxidant properties. Instead, curcumin enhanced expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in HK-2 cells under control conditions and after exposure to Stx1 or Stx2. No injury was detectable after incubation of LLC-PK(1) or OK cells, non-human proximal tubule cell lines, with Stx1 or Stx2. Thus, curcumin inhibits Stx-induced apoptosis and necrosis in HK-2 cells in vitro. The cytoprotective effect of curcumin against Stx-induced injury in cultured human proximal tubule epithelial cells may be a consequence of increased expression of HSP70. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2003
                16 May 2003
                : 23
                : 3
                : 129-139
                Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, N.Y., USA
                69304 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:129–139
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 42, Pages: 11
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/69304
                Original Article: Basic Sciences


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