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      International Survey on the Management of Wake-Up Stroke

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          Abstract

          Background: Patients who wake up having experienced a stroke while asleep represent around 20% of acute stroke admissions. According to international guidelines for the management of acute stroke, patients presenting with wake-up stroke are not currently eligible to receive revascularization treatments. In this study, we aimed to assess the opinions of stroke experts about the management of patients with wake-up stroke by using an international multicenter electronic survey. Method: This study consisted of 8 questions on wake-up stroke treatment. Results: Two hundred invitations to participate in the survey were sent by e-mail. Fifty-nine participants started the survey, 4 dropped out before completing it, and 55 completed the full questionnaire. We had 55 participants from 22 countries. Conclusions: In this study, most stroke experts recommended a recanalization treatment for wake-up stroke. However, there was considerable disagreement among experts regarding the best brain imaging method and the best recanalization treatment. The results of ongoing randomized trials on wake-up stroke are urgently needed.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Population-based study of wake-up strokes.

          Previous studies have estimated that wake-up strokes comprise 8%to 28% of all ischemic strokes, but these studies were either small or not population-based. We sought to establish the proportion and event rate of wake-up strokes in a large population-based study and to compare patients who awoke with stroke symptoms with those who were awake at time of onset. First-time and recurrent ischemic strokes among residents of the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region (population 1.3 million) in 2005 were identified using International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 430-436 and verified via study physician review. Ischemic strokes in patients aged 18 years and older presenting to an emergency department were included. Baseline characteristics were ascertained, along with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores and 90-day mortality. We identified 1,854 ischemic strokes presenting to an emergency department, of which 273 (14.3%) were wake-up strokes. There were no differences between wake-up strokes and all other strokes with regard to clinical features or outcomes except for minor differences in age and baseline retrospective NIH Stroke Scale score. The adjusted wake-up stroke event rate was 26.0/100,000. Of the wake-up strokes, at least 98 (35.9%) would have been eligible for thrombolysis if arrival time were not a factor. Within our population, approximately 14% of ischemic strokes presenting to an emergency department were wake-up strokes. Wake-up strokes cannot be distinguished from other strokes by clinical features or outcome. We estimate that approximately 58,000 patients with wake-up strokes presented to an emergency department in the United States in 2005.
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            Presentation and outcomes of "wake-up strokes" in a large randomized stroke trial: analysis of data from the International Stroke Trial.

            Recent studies comparing the outcomes of wake-up stroke (WUS) and stroke while awake (SWA) patients reveal better outcomes among SWA patients, attributable in part to their higher rates of thrombolysis. Patients with WUS are largely excluded from therapy. Earlier analyses, conducted before the approval of alteplase for acute stroke, show the true divergence of natural histories between these 2 groups. We analyzed 17,398 patients with ischemic stroke from the International Stroke Trial and compared both presentations and outcomes between the WUS and SWA groups. Severity was assessed by level of consciousness, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) stroke classification, number of neurologic deficits, and predicted probability of dependency or death. Outcomes were assessed at day 14 and at 6 months. Outcome assessments were controlled for potential confounders. WUS represented 29.6% of all ischemic strokes. More severe OSCP stroke type (total anterior circulation syndrome) was less common in WUS. Although more patients with WUS were alert at presentation with a lower predicted probability of dependency, the 14-day mortality rates and rates of poor outcome at 6 months were similar between the 2 groups. WUS patients comprise one quarter to one third of ischemic stroke patients. Despite their more benign presentations, they deteriorate to outcome rates similar to SWA. Although they are typically excluded from time-dependent acute interventions, patients with WUS may benefit from acute intervention to prevent this worsening natural history. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Wake-up stroke within 3 hours of symptom awareness: imaging and clinical features compared to standard recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treated stroke.

              Patients with wake-up stroke (WUS) are excluded from thrombolysis because of unknown time of symptom onset. Previous studies have reported similar stroke severity and early ischemic changes (EICs) in patients with WUS and stroke of known onset. These studies, however, included patients within a large timeframe to imaging or did not quantify EICs. The aim of our study was to quantify EICs of patients with WUS presenting within 3 hours of symptom recognition compared to standard 3-hours recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)-treated patients and assess the extent of ischemic lesion and functional independence at follow-up. Patients were selected from our prospectively collected stroke database. Baseline and follow-up computed tomographic scans were graded with Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS). Clinical outcome measures were modified Rankin Scale score, mortality, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Demographic features, risk factors, stroke severity, and baseline ASPECTS were similar in both groups. WUS and rt-PA-treated patients had similar tissue outcome (median ASPECTS 7.0 vs 7.5; P = .202). Functional outcome was more favorable in rt-PA-treated patients (61.6% vs 43.1%; odds ratio [OR] 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.28; P = .037). After adjusting for age, stroke severity, treatment, and EICs in less than one-third of middle cerebral artery territory, rt-PA and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores remained the only significant predictors of outcome (OR 7.76; 95% CI 2.40-25.05; P = .001 and OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.67-0.82; P < .001, respectively). Within 3 hours of symptom recognition, patients with WUS have EICs similar to rt-PA-treated patients. It is reasonable to expect that selected WUS patients might benefit from thrombolysis within 3 hours of symptom awareness. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CEE
                CEE
                Cerebrovasc Dis Extra
                10.1159/issn.1664-5456
                Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
                S. Karger AG
                1664-5456
                2016
                January – April 2016
                31 March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 22-26
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Interventional Neuroradiology, bDepartment of Neurology, and cDivision of Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Luís Henrique de Castro-Afonso, MD, PhD, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14048-090 (Brazil), E-Mail castroafonsolh@usp.br
                Article
                444765 PMC4836135 Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2016;6:22-26
                10.1159/000444765
                PMC4836135
                27099612
                © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 10, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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