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      Spatiotemporal patterns of non-native terrestrial gastropods in the contiguous United States

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      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The contiguous United States (CONUS) harbor a significant non-native species diversity. However, spatiotemporal trends of some groups such as terrestrial gastropods (i.e., land snails and slugs) have not been comprehensively considered, and therefore management has been hindered. Here, our aims were to 1.) compile a dataset of all non-native terrestrial gastropod species with CONUS occurrence records, 2.) assess overarching spatiotemporal patterns associated with these records, 3.) describe the continental origin of each species, and 4.) compare climatic associations of each species in their indigenous and introduced CONUS ranges. We compiled a georeferenced dataset of 10,097 records for 22 families, 48 genera, and 69 species, with > 70% of records sourced from the citizen science database iNaturalist. The species Cornu aspersum Müller, 1774 was most prevalent with 3,672 records. The majority (> 92%) of records exhibit an indigenous Western European and Mediterranean distribution, with overlap in broad-scale climatic associations between indigenous and CONUS ranges. Records are most dense in urban metropolitan areas, with the highest proportion of records and species richness in the state of California. We show increased prevalence of non-native species through time, largely associated with urbanized areas with high human population density. Moreover, we show strong evidence for a role for analogous climates in dictating geographic fate and pervasiveness between indigenous and CONUS ranges for non-native species.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Invasive species are a leading cause of animal extinctions.

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            Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature

            Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance.
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              Eradication of Invading Insect Populations: From Concepts to Applications.

              Eradication is the deliberate elimination of a species from an area. Given that international quarantine measures can never be 100% effective, surveillance for newly arrived populations of nonnative species coupled with their eradication represents an important strategy for excluding potentially damaging insect species. Historically, eradication efforts have not always been successful and have sometimes been met with public opposition. But new developments in our understanding of the dynamics of low-density populations, the availability of highly effective treatment tactics, and bioeconomic analyses of eradication strategies offer new opportunities for developing more effective surveillance and eradication programs. A key component that connects these new developments is the harnessing of Allee effects, which naturally promote localized species extinction. Here we review these developments and suggest how research might enhance eradication strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                June 17 2020
                June 17 2020
                : 57
                : 133-152
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.57.52195
                © 2020

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