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      Plasma Soluble Adhesion Molecule Levels in Coronary Artery Ectasia

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          Abstract

          Background:Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as localized or diffuse dilatation of the coronary arteries. There are scarce data about the role of inflammation in CAE. In the present study, the plasma soluble adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels in CAE were investigated. Methods: The study population (n = 67) consisted of four groups. Group 1: patients with normal coronary artery (NCA); group 2: patients with isolated ectasia without stenotic lesion; group 3: patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) without CAE; group 4: patients with both OCAD and CAE. Results: Plasma concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were higher in patients with isolated ectasia than in cases with NCA (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with OCAD patients, patients with CAE had significantly elevated concentrations of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of the CAE and OCAD group were higher than in patients in the OCAD group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). We detected a positive correlation between the presence of CAE and the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed a significant independent relation between the presence of CAE and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Conclusion: We found elevated plasma levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in patients with CAE and OCAD + CAE compared with subjects with NCA and OCAD. These data strongly suggest that more severe vascular wall inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM, and E-selectin in human atherosclerosis.

          The expression of PECAM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin was studied in 64 samples of human coronary arteries taken from 15 explanted hearts obtained within 5 min of transplantation. Normal artery (n = 12), predominantly fibrous plaques (n = 23), and plaques containing extracellular lipid (n = 26) and three segments showing recanalization channels were studied. All endothelial cells strongly and equally expressed PECAM; positive staining was used to check that artefactual denudation of the endothelial surface had not occurred. PECAM was also present in some lipid-filled macrophages. Normal arteries showed no VCAM-1 staining but focal segments of the endothelium were positive for ICAM-1 and E-selectin. ICAM-1 was strongly and constantly expressed by the endothelium over all types of plaques and in macrophages. E-selectin expression was confined to endothelial cells and occurred on the surface in 35 per cent of fibrous and 22 per cent of lipid-containing plaques. VCAM-1 staining of surface endothelium occurred in 39 per cent of fibrous and 20 per cent of lipid-containing plaques. A population of spindle-shaped cells of macrophage type (positive for EMB11 antigen) expressed VCAM-1 in lipid-containing plaques. Adventitial vessels adjacent to plaques showed endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and E-selectin. VCAM-1 staining of adventitial vessel endothelium was associated with local lymphoid aggregation. In conclusion, the expression of cell adhesion molecules is an important element in the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis and contributes to both monocyte and lymphocyte activation and recruitment from adventitial vessels and the arterial lumen.
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            Clinical significance of coronary arterial ectasia.

             R Gorlin,  P Cohn,  D Feen (1976)
            In a study group of 2,457 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, 30 patients had coronary arterial ectasia, an irregular dilatation of major vessels up to seven times the diameter of branch vessels. The frequency of hypertension, abnormal electrocardiogram and history of myocardial infarction was greater than that in a control group with obstructive coronary artery disease. Patients with ectasia did not differ from patients with obstructive disease in sex, age, prevalence of angina or presence of metabolic abnormalities. Six deaths occurred in the group with ectasia during a mean follow-up period of 24 months (annual rate of 15 percent). Extensive destruction of the musculoelastic elements was evident, resulting in marked attenuation of the vessel wall. The short-term prognosis in this group is the same as in medically treated patients with three vessel obstructive coronary artery disease.
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              Circulating cell adhesion molecules and death in patients with coronary artery disease.

              Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and E-selectin mediate adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes to the vascular endothelial wall and may promote plaque growth and instability. In a prospective study, we evaluated the effect of soluble adhesion molecules on the risk of future cardiovascular events among patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results- -We obtained baseline samples from a prospective cohort of 1246 patients with CAD. Besides various markers of inflammation, soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1), sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were determined. Follow-up information on cardiovascular events was obtained (mean, 2.7; maximum, 4.1 years). Independently higher levels of sVCAM-1 (1932 versus 1128 ng/mL; P<0.0001), sICAM-1 (353 versus 287 ng/mL; P=0.015), and sE-selectin (81 versus 63 ng/mL; P=0.003) were observed in patients with future death from cardiovascular causes. In a multivariate model, fatal risk was 2.1-fold (1.1 to 4.0) higher in patients within the top quartile of baseline sVCAM-1 concentrations compared with lower quartiles. This association was present independent of general inflammatory response as reflected by low or high C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. In a model that simultaneously controlled for all inflammatory and soluble adhesion markers determined, only sVCAM-1 remained independently significant for future fatal cardiovascular events, with a 2.8-fold increase in risk (P=0.003). Soluble adhesion molecules sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly related to future death from cardiovascular causes among patients with documented CAD. Especially sVCAM-1 added to the predictive value of classic risk factors and hs-CRP in determining the risk of future cardiovascular death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                March 2006
                03 April 2006
                : 105
                : 3
                : 176-181
                Affiliations
                Departments of aCardiology and bCardiovascular Surgery, Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center, Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                91414 Cardiology 2006;105:176–181
                10.1159/000091414
                16490963
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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