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      Drying Effects on Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Lippia thymoides Essential Oil, a Natural Source of Thymol


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          Leaves of Lippia thymoides (Verbenaceae) were dried in an oven at 40, 50 and 60 °C and the kinetic of drying and the influence of the drying process on the chemical composition, yield, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the obtained essential oils were evaluated. The composition of the essential oils was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection analyses. The influence of drying on the chemical composition of the essential oils of L. thymoides was evaluated by multivariate analysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The Midilli model was the most appropriate to describe the behavior of drying kinetic data of L. thymoides leaves. Thymol was the major compound for all analyzed conditions; the maximum content was obtained from fresh leaves (62.78 ± 0.63%). The essential oils showed DPPH radical scavenging activity with an average of 73.10 ± 12.08%, and the fresh leaves showed higher inhibition (89.97 ± 0.31%). This is the first study to evaluate the influence of drying on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of L. thymoides essential oils rich in thymol.

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          Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

          Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol.
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            Synergy and antagonism in natural product extracts: when 1 + 1 does not equal 2

            This report documents the cellular, molecular, and analytical methods used to identify combination effects in complex natural product mixtures. Covering: 2000 to 2019 According to a 2012 survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 18% of the U.S. population uses natural products (including plant-based or botanical preparations) for treatment or prevention of disease. The use of plant-based medicines is even more prevalent in developing countries, where for many they constitute the primary health care modality. Proponents of the medicinal use of natural product mixtures often claim that they are more effective than purified compounds due to beneficial “synergistic” interactions. A less-discussed phenomenon, antagonism, in which effects of active constituents are masked by other compounds in a complex mixture, also occurs in natural product mixtures. Synergy and antagonism are notoriously difficult to study in a rigorous fashion, particularly given that natural products chemistry research methodology is typically devoted to reducing complexity and identifying single active constituents for drug development. This report represents a critical review with commentary about the current state of the scientific literature as it relates to studying combination effects (including both synergy and antagonism) in natural product extracts. We provide particular emphasis on analytical and Big Data approaches for identifying synergistic or antagonistic combinations and elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their interactions. Specific case studies of botanicals in which synergistic interactions have been documented are also discussed. The topic of synergy is important given that consumer use of botanical natural products and associated safety concerns continue to garner attention by the public and the media. Guidance by the natural products community is needed to provide strategies for effective evaluation of safety and toxicity of botanical mixtures and to drive discovery in botanical natural product research.
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              Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

              Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                30 April 2021
                May 2021
                : 26
                : 9
                : 2621
                [1 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, Pará, Brazil; leniojgfaria@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Coordenação de Botânica, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém 66077-830, Pará, Brazil; eloisa@ 123456museu-goeldi.br
                [3 ]Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, Pará, Brazil; profsebastiaogs@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, Pará, Brazil; cascaesmm@ 123456gmail.com
                [5 ]Faculdade de Biotecnologia, Instituto de Biodiversidade, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Santarém 68035-110, Pará, Brazil
                [6 ]Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade do Estado do Pará, Belém 66050-540, Pará, Brazil; pablo.figueiredo@ 123456uepa.br
                [7 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém 66075-110, Pará, Brazil; cristianemlcosta@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lidianenascimento@ 123456museu-goeldi.br (L.D.d.N.); kaue.costa@ 123456ufopa.edu.br (K.S.d.C.); Tel.: +55-91-3217-6086 (L.D.d.N.); +55-93-2101-6771 (K.S.d.C.)
                Author information
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 24 February 2021
                : 10 March 2021

                drying kinetics,thymol,yield,multivariate analysis,dpph
                drying kinetics, thymol, yield, multivariate analysis, dpph


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