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      Investigating the attentional focus to workplace-related soundscapes in a complex audio-visual-motor task using EEG

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          In demanding work situations (e.g., during a surgery), the processing of complex soundscapes varies over time and can be a burden for medical personnel. Here we study, using mobile electroencephalography (EEG), how humans process workplace-related soundscapes while performing a complex audio-visual-motor task (3D Tetris). Specifically, we wanted to know how the attentional focus changes the processing of the soundscape as a whole.

          Method

          Participants played a game of 3D Tetris in which they had to use both hands to control falling blocks. At the same time, participants listened to a complex soundscape, similar to what is found in an operating room (i.e., the sound of machinery, people talking in the background, alarm sounds, and instructions). In this within-subject design, participants had to react to instructions (e.g., “place the next block in the upper left corner”) and to sounds depending on the experimental condition, either to a specific alarm sound originating from a fixed location or to a beep sound that originated from varying locations. Attention to the alarm reflected a narrow attentional focus, as it was easy to detect and most of the soundscape could be ignored. Attention to the beep reflected a wide attentional focus, as it required the participants to monitor multiple different sound streams.

          Results and discussion

          Results show the robustness of the N1 and P3 event related potential response during this dynamic task with a complex auditory soundscape. Furthermore, we used temporal response functions to study auditory processing to the whole soundscape. This work is a step toward studying workplace-related sound processing in the operating room using mobile EEG.

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          Most cited references59

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          EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis

          We have developed a toolbox and graphic user interface, EEGLAB, running under the crossplatform MATLAB environment (The Mathworks, Inc.) for processing collections of single-trial and/or averaged EEG data of any number of channels. Available functions include EEG data, channel and event information importing, data visualization (scrolling, scalp map and dipole model plotting, plus multi-trial ERP-image plots), preprocessing (including artifact rejection, filtering, epoch selection, and averaging), independent component analysis (ICA) and time/frequency decompositions including channel and component cross-coherence supported by bootstrap statistical methods based on data resampling. EEGLAB functions are organized into three layers. Top-layer functions allow users to interact with the data through the graphic interface without needing to use MATLAB syntax. Menu options allow users to tune the behavior of EEGLAB to available memory. Middle-layer functions allow users to customize data processing using command history and interactive 'pop' functions. Experienced MATLAB users can use EEGLAB data structures and stand-alone signal processing functions to write custom and/or batch analysis scripts. Extensive function help and tutorial information are included. A 'plug-in' facility allows easy incorporation of new EEG modules into the main menu. EEGLAB is freely available (http://www.sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open source development, together with sample data, user tutorial and extensive documentation.
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            Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b.

            The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations.
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              Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of Empirical and Theoretical Research

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurogenom
                Front Neurogenom
                Front. Neuroergon.
                Frontiers in Neuroergonomics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2673-6195
                02 February 2023
                2022
                : 3
                : 1062227
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Neurophysiology of Everyday Life Group, Department of Psychology, University of Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Germany
                [2] 2Pius-Hospital Oldenburg, University Hospital for Visceral Surgery, University of Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Germany
                [3] 3Research Center for Neurosensory Science, University of Oldenburg , Oldenburg, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sara Riggs, University of Virginia, United States

                Reviewed by: Hiroshi Higashi, Kyoto University, Japan; Yuxiao Yang, Zhejiang University, China; Dan Furman, Arctop Inc., United States

                *Correspondence: Marc Rosenkranz ✉ marc.rosenkranz@ 123456uni-oldenburg.de

                This article was submitted to Cognitive Neuroergonomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroergonomics

                Article
                10.3389/fnrgo.2022.1062227
                10790850
                38235454
                677950ce-3b2c-4bb8-9504-d2300df954af
                Copyright © 2023 Rosenkranz, Cetin, Uslar and Bleichner.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 05 October 2022
                : 16 December 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 2, References: 60, Pages: 14, Words: 9772
                Funding
                This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under the Emmy-Noether program–BL 1591/1-1–Project ID 411333557 and by the Forschungspool Funding of the Oldenburg School of Medicine and Health Science.
                Categories
                Neuroergonomics
                Original Research

                auditory attention,mobile eeg,work strain,p3 erp,n1 erp,temporal response function (trf)

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