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      Evaluating the Balance Regulating Matrix Remodeling

      a , * , b

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Remodeling

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          The MMP-9/TIMP-1 Axis Controls the Status of Differentiation and Function of Myelin-Forming Schwann Cells in Nerve Regeneration

          Background Myelinating Schwann cells (mSCs) form myelin in the peripheral nervous system. Because of the works by us and others, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as an essential component of the Schwann cell signaling network during sciatic nerve regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, using the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of normal and injured sciatic nerves in mice followed by extensive bioinformatics analyses of the data, we determined that an endogenous, specific MMP-9 inhibitor [tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1] was a top up-regulated gene in the injured nerve. MMP-9 capture followed by gelatin zymography and Western blotting of the isolated samples revealed the presence of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 heterodimers and the activated MMP-9 enzyme in the injured nerve within the first 24 h post-injury. MMP-9 and TIMP-1 co-localized in mSCs. Knockout of the MMP-9 gene in mice resulted in elevated numbers of de-differentiated/immature mSCs in the damaged nerve. Our comparative studies using MMP-9 knockout and wild-type mice documented an aberrantly enhanced proliferative activity and, accordingly, an increased number of post-mitotic Schwann cells, short internodes and additional nodal abnormalities in remyelinated nerves of MMP-9 knockout mice. These data imply that during the first days post-injury MMP-9 exhibits a functionally important anti-mitogenic activity in the wild-type mice. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP activity suppressed the expression of Nav1.7/1.8 channels in the crushed nerves. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, our data established an essential role of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 axis in guiding the mSC differentiation and the molecular assembly of myelin domains in the course of the nerve repair process. Our findings of the MMP-dependent regulation of Nav channels, which we document here for the first time, provide a basis for therapeutic intervention in sensorimotor pathologies and pain.
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            The Multitasking Role of Macrophages in Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

            Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether the release by macrophages of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - leading to inflammation, matrix degradation and neoangiogenesis - represents an effective pathway that underlies aortic wall remodeling in Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with no genetic predisposition, with Stanford type A AAD were selected. In each patient, the levels of serum VEGF, MMP-12, serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ascending aortic specimens were collected for immunohistochemical identification of any presence of inflammatory infiltrate, VEGF and CD31 expression. Results: A significant increase in serum VEGF (p = 0.044), MMP-12 (p = 0.007), IL-6 (p = 0.0001), IL-8 (p = 0.0001) and MCP-1 (p = 0.0001) levels was observed in the AAD group compared to the control group. Furthermore, all AAD samples were positive for VEGF in the tunica media and showed vessel growth and immune-inflammatory infiltrate. A large number of cases (62.79%) showed inflammation at the edge of the dissection and approximately half (51.42%) showed neovessels growing at the edge of the dissection. Conclusions: The results suggest that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and matrix degradation play a role in AAD. Finally, we believe that MMP-12 should be considered a marker of AAD.
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              The Role of the Macrophage in the Development of Aortic Dissection

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                July 2014
                05 June 2014
                : 128
                : 4
                : 313
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Aksaz Military Hospital, Marmaris, and bDepartment of Cardiology, Gülhane Military Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
                Author notes
                *Emre Yalcinkaya, MD, Department of Cardiology, Aksaz Military Hospital, TR-48750 Marmaris (Turkey), E-Mail dremreyalcinkaya@gmail.com
                Article
                360605 Cardiology 2014;128:313
                10.1159/000360605
                24903977
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 1
                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

                Remodeling

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