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Use of HAS-BLED Score in an Anticoagulation Outpatient Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital Translated title: Uso do Escore HAS-BLED em um Ambulatório de Anticoagulação de um Hospital Terciário

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      Abstract

      Abstract Background: HAS-BLED score was developed to assess 1-year major bleeding risk in patients anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) due to atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: Of this study was to assess the ability of HAS-BLED score and its components to predict major bleeding in patients treated in an anticoagulation outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study on AF patients treated with VKA was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the ability of individual score components to predict major bleeding. The significance level adopted in all tests was 5%. Results: We studied 263 patients with a mean age of 71.1 ± 10.5 years over a period of 237.6 patients-year. Median HAS-BLED score was 2 (1-3). The overall incidence of major bleeding was 5.7%, and it was higher among high-risk HAS-BLED score patients than in low risk patients (9.6 vs. 3.1%; p = 0.052). Area under the ROC curve was 0.70 (p = 0.01). Cut-off point ≥ 3 showed sensibility of 66.7%, specificity of 62.1%, positive predictive value of 9.6% and negative predictive value of 96.9%. Major bleeding-free survival was lower in high-risk group (p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, concurrent antiplatelet use was the only independent predictor of major bleeding among score components (OR 5.13, 95%CI: 1.55-17.0; p = 0.007). Conclusion: HAS-BLED score was able to predict major bleeding in this cohort of AF patients. Among score components, special attention should be given for concomitant antiplatelet use, which was independently associated to this outcome. Antiplatelets in AF patients under VKA anticoagulation should be used in selected patients with favorable risk-benefit assessment.

      Translated abstract

      Resumo Fundamento: O escore HAS-BLED foi desenvolvido para avaliar o risco em um ano de sangramento maior em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) anticoagulados com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVK). Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade do escore HAS-BLED e de seus componentes em predizer sangramento maior em pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório de anticoagulação de um hospital terciário. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo coorte retrospectivo com pacientes com FA tratados com AVK. Análise de regressão logística foi realizada para avaliar a capacidade de cada componente do escore em predizer sangramento maior. O nível de significância adotado em todos os testes foi de 5%. Resultados: Foram estudados 263 pacientes com média de idade de 71,1 ± 10,5 anos ao longo de um período de tratamento de 237,6 pacientes-ano. A mediana do escore HAS-BLED foi de 2 (1-3). A incidência de sangramento maior foi de 5,7%, sendo mais elevada nos pacientes de alto risco que nos pacientes de baixo risco (9,6 vs. 3,1%; p = 0,052). A área sob a curva ROC foi de 0,70 (p = 0,01). Um ponto de corte ≥ 3 mostrou sensibilidade de 66,7%, especificidade de 62,1%, valor preditivo positivo de 9,6% e valor preditivo negativo de 96,9%. Sobrevida livre de sangramento maior foi menor no grupo de alto risco (p = 0,017). Na análise multivariada, o único preditor independente de sangramento maior entre os componentes do escore foi o uso concomitante de antiplaquetários (OR 5,13, IC95%: 1,55-17,0; p = 0,007). Conclusão: O escore HAS-BLED foi capaz de prever sangramento maior na população de pacientes com FA estudada. Entre os componentes do escore, atenção especial deve ser dada para o uso concomitante de antiplaquetários, que mostrou associação independente. Em pacientes com FA em uso de AVK como terapia anticoagulante, o uso de antiplaquetários deve ser realizado somente naqueles pacientes com avaliação risco-benefício favorável.

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      Most cited references 29

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      Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation.

      Contemporary clinical risk stratification schemata for predicting stroke and thromboembolism (TE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are largely derived from risk factors identified from trial cohorts. Thus, many potential risk factors have not been included. We refined the 2006 Birmingham/National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) stroke risk stratification schema into a risk factor-based approach by reclassifying and/or incorporating additional new risk factors where relevant. This schema was then compared with existing stroke risk stratification schema in a real-world cohort of patients with AF (n = 1,084) from the Euro Heart Survey for AF. Risk categorization differed widely between the different schemes compared. Patients classified as high risk ranged from 10.2% with the Framingham schema to 75.7% with the Birmingham 2009 schema. The classic CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age > 75, Diabetes, prior Stroke/transient ischemic attack) schema categorized the largest proportion (61.9%) into the intermediate-risk strata, whereas the Birmingham 2009 schema classified 15.1% into this category. The Birmingham 2009 schema classified only 9.2% as low risk, whereas the Framingham scheme categorized 48.3% as low risk. Calculated C-statistics suggested modest predictive value of all schema for TE. The Birmingham 2009 schema fared marginally better (C-statistic, 0.606) than CHADS(2). However, those classified as low risk by the Birmingham 2009 and NICE schema were truly low risk with no TE events recorded, whereas TE events occurred in 1.4% of low-risk CHADS(2) subjects. When expressed as a scoring system, the Birmingham 2009 schema (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc acronym) showed an increase in TE rate with increasing scores (P value for trend = .003). Our novel, simple stroke risk stratification schema, based on a risk factor approach, provides some improvement in predictive value for TE over the CHADS(2) schema, with low event rates in low-risk subjects and the classification of only a small proportion of subjects into the intermediate-risk category. This schema could improve our approach to stroke risk stratification in patients with AF.
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        Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

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          Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

          Atrial fibrillation is a strong independent risk factor for stroke. To characterize the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention in patients who have atrial fibrillation, adding 13 recent randomized trials to a previous meta-analysis. Randomized trials identified by using the Cochrane Stroke Group search strategy, 1966 to March 2007, unrestricted by language. All published randomized trials with a mean follow-up of 3 months or longer that tested antithrombotic agents in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Two coauthors independently extracted information regarding interventions; participants; and occurrences of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, major extracranial bleeding, and death. Twenty-nine trials included 28,044 participants (mean age, 71 years; mean follow-up, 1.5 years). Compared with the control, adjusted-dose warfarin (6 trials, 2900 participants) and antiplatelet agents (8 trials, 4876 participants) reduced stroke by 64% (95% CI, 49% to 74%) and 22% (CI, 6% to 35%), respectively. Adjusted-dose warfarin was substantially more efficacious than antiplatelet therapy (relative risk reduction, 39% [CI, 22% to 52%]) (12 trials, 12 963 participants). Other randomized comparisons were inconclusive. Absolute increases in major extracranial hemorrhage were small (< or =0.3% per year) on the basis of meta-analysis. Methodological features and quality varied substantially and often were incompletely reported. Adjusted-dose warfarin and antiplatelet agents reduce stroke by approximately 60% and by approximately 20%, respectively, in patients who have atrial fibrillation. Warfarin is substantially more efficacious (by approximately 40%) than antiplatelet therapy. Absolute increases in major extracranial hemorrhage associated with antithrombotic therapy in participants from the trials included in this meta-analysis were less than the absolute reductions in stroke. Judicious use of antithrombotic therapy importantly reduces stroke for most patients who have atrial fibrillation.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Porto Alegre RS orgnameHospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
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            Role: ND
            Role: ND
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            Journal
            ijcs
            International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences
            Int. J. Cardiovasc. Sci.
            Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
            2359-4802
            2359-5647
            September 2017
            : 30
            : 6
            : 517-525
            S2359-56472017000600517
            10.5935/2359-4802.20170081

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 9
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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