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      Skin Temperature in Parkinson's Disease Measured by Infrared Thermography

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often show peripheral autonomic dysfunction and depositions of pathological alpha-synuclein aggregates in the skin. However, functional consequences of this skin involvement have received little attention.

          Objective

          To determine thermographic differences in the skin between healthy controls (HCs) and PD patients on hands, feet, and trunk and to correlate findings with symptoms and signs of dysautonomia. Between-group differences in autonomic parameters and questionnaires were explored.

          Methods

          Twenty-one PD patients and 19 HCs were examined by thermographic infrared imaging of standardized anatomical locations on the trunk and upper and lower extremities at baseline and after exposure to cold stress test (CST). Thermal recovery rates (RRs) were determined on the basis of thermograms. Correlation analyses between alterations in skin temperature and autonomic dysfunction were performed.

          Results

          The most significant RR difference between PD patients and HCs was seen on the fifth distal phalanx 10 minutes post-CST (mean RR ± SD: 51 ± 18% vs. 70 ± 23%, p = 0.003). No between-group differences were seen in baseline or post-CST values of the feet. No correlations were seen between thermal parameters and clinical and autonomic data. In the HC group, a positive, moderate correlation was seen between post-CST recovery values on the 3 rd and 5 th phalanx and body mass index (BMI) ( r = 0.661, p = 0.002).

          Conclusions

          The PD patients exhibited significant reduction in RR compared to HC and patients also displayed altered thermal responses in multiple anatomical locations. Thus, infrared thermography could become an important future tool in investigation of autonomic deficiency in PD.

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          Most cited references8

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          • Article: not found

          Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality

          M Hoehn, M Yahr (1967)
          Neurology, 17(5), 427-427
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            • Record: found
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            • Article: not found

            Infrared thermal imaging in medicine.

            This review describes the features of modern infrared imaging technology and the standardization protocols for thermal imaging in medicine. The technique essentially uses naturally emitted infrared radiation from the skin surface. Recent studies have investigated the influence of equipment and the methods of image recording. The credibility and acceptance of thermal imaging in medicine is subject to critical use of the technology and proper understanding of thermal physiology. Finally, we review established and evolving medical applications for thermal imaging, including inflammatory diseases, complex regional pain syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Recent interest in the potential applications for fever screening is described, and some other areas of medicine where some research papers have included thermal imaging as an assessment modality. In certain applications thermal imaging is shown to provide objective measurement of temperature changes that are clinically significant.
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Thermographic imaging in sports and exercise medicine: A Delphi study and consensus statement on the measurement of human skin temperature

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Parkinsons Dis
                Parkinsons Dis
                PD
                Parkinson's Disease
                Hindawi
                2090-8083
                2042-0080
                2020
                25 July 2020
                : 2020
                : 2349469
                Affiliations
                1Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                2Danish Pain Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                3Department of Clinical Medicine–Core Center for Molecular Morphology, Section for Stereology and Microscopy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
                4Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Hélio Teive

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1644-8622
                Article
                10.1155/2020/2349469
                7397449
                679cfe8d-534c-4a54-9f33-0e6f83bc3ed5
                Copyright © 2020 Mathias Møller Purup et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 16 April 2020
                : 22 June 2020
                : 7 July 2020
                Categories
                Research Article

                Neurology
                Neurology

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