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      Effect of dual antiplatelet on recurrent stroke in minor stroke or TIA depends on bodyweight

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          To assess whether bodyweight influences the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) in male patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack patients.

          Materials and methods

          All 3,420 male participants coming from the Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events trial were divided into 3 groups based on bodyweight (<65 kg, 65–75 kg, and ≥75 kg). The stroke outcomes included stroke recurrence, combined vascular events, and bleeding events during 90 days of follow-up. The interaction of the treatment effects of DAT among patients with different bodyweight was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models.


          DAT is superior to mono antiplatelet therapy (MAT) for reducing stroke recurrence among patients with weight <65 kg (5.0% vs 11.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; 95% CI: 0.22–0.76) and 65–75 kg (6.7% vs 10.8%, HR, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.43–0.89). However, no significant difference was found in stroke recurrence between DAT and MAT in patients with weight ≥75 kg (9.4% vs 11.6%; HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.58–1.10). A significant interaction was observed between weight and antiplatelet therapy on stroke recurrence ( p<0.05). Similar result was found for combined vascular events. More bleeding events were found in DAT group among patients with <65 kg (3.7% vs 2.2%), but with no significant difference.


          DAT does not show benefit in patients with higher weight, compared with MAT. Bleeding events found in the DAT group were not more than the MAT group among patients with lower weight.

          Clinical trial registration

          URL: Unique identifier: NCT00979589.

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          Most cited references 21

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          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The aim of this updated guideline is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage secondary prevention for these patients. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke. Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy. Special sections address use of antithrombotic and anticoagulation therapy after an intracranial hemorrhage and implementation of guidelines. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
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              An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction. The GUSTO investigators.

               F Werf,  P Aylward,  E Topol (1993)
              The relative efficacy of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator and the roles of intravenous as compared with subcutaneous heparin as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction are unresolved questions. The current trial was designed to compare new, aggressive thrombolytic strategies with standard thrombolytic regimens in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Our hypothesis was that newer thrombolytic strategies that produce earlier and sustained reperfusion would improve survival. In 15 countries and 1081 hospitals, 41,021 patients with evolving myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to four different thrombolytic strategies, consisting of the use of streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, streptokinase and intravenous heparin, accelerated tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and intravenous heparin, or a combination of streptokinase plus t-PA with intravenous heparin. ("Accelerated" refers to the administration of t-PA over a period of 1 1/2 hours--with two thirds of the dose given in the first 30 minutes--rather than the conventional period of 3 hours.) The primary end point was 30-day mortality. The mortality rates in the four treatment groups were as follows: streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin, 7.2 percent; streptokinase and intravenous heparin, 7.4 percent; accelerated t-PA and intravenous heparin, 6.3 percent, and the combination of both thrombolytic agents with intravenous heparin, 7.0 percent. This represented a 14 percent reduction (95 percent confidence interval, 5.9 to 21.3 percent) in mortality for accelerated t-PA as compared with the two streptokinase-only strategies (P = 0.001). The rates of hemorrhagic stroke were 0.49 percent, 0.54 percent, 0.72 percent, and 0.94 percent in the four groups, respectively, which represented a significant excess of hemorrhagic strokes for accelerated t-PA (P = 0.03) and for the combination strategy (P < 0.001), as compared with streptokinase only. A combined end point of death or disabling stroke was significantly lower in the accelerated-tPA group than in the streptokinase-only groups (6.9 percent vs. 7.8 percent, P = 0.006). The findings of this large-scale trial indicate that accelerated t-PA given with intravenous heparin provides a survival benefit over previous standard thrombolytic regimens.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                [3 ]China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China
                [4 ]Center of Stroke, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China
                [5 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fenghe Du, Department of Cardiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No 6 Tiantanxili, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100050, China, Tel +86 0 106 709 6567, Fax +86 010 709 6567, Email fhduu@
                Yongjun Wang, Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No 6 Tiantanxili, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100050, China, Tel +86 0 106 709 8350, Fax +86 0 106 701 3383, Email yongjunwang1962@
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 May 2018
                : 14
                : 861-870
                © 2018 Ma et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                tia, bodyweight, outcomes, ischemic stroke, dual antiplatelet therapy


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