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      Venous thromboembolic prophylaxis after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty : aspirin versus warfarin

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          Abstract

          Aims

          The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA).

          Patients and Methods

          A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk.

          Results

          The adjusted incidence of PE following SBTKA was 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.2) with aspirin and 2.2% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) with warfarin. Similarly, the adjusted incidence of VTE following SBTKA was 1.6% (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) with aspirin and 2.5% (95% CI 1.9 to 3.3) with warfarin. The risk of PE and VTE were reduced by 66% (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78) and 38% (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.0), respectively, using aspirin. In addition, the risk of PE was 204% higher for patients undergoing SBTKA relative to those undergoing UTKA. For each ten-point increase in baseline VTE risk, the risk of PE increased by 25.5% for patients undergoing SBTKA compared with 10.5% for those undergoing UTKA. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease had the greatest increase in risk from undergoing SBTKA instead of UTKA.

          Conclusion

          Aspirin is more effective than warfarin for the prevention of VTE following SBTKA, and serves as the more appropriate agent for VTE prophylaxis for patients in all risk categories. Furthermore, patients undergoing SBTKA are at a substantially increased risk of VTE, even more so for those with significant underlying risk factors. Patients should be informed about the risks associated with undergoing SBTKA.

          Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B(1 Supple A):68–75.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

          The use of warfarin reduces the rate of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustment. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide more consistent and predictable anticoagulation than warfarin. In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke to receive either rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 20 mg) or dose-adjusted warfarin. The per-protocol, as-treated primary analysis was designed to determine whether rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the primary end point of stroke or systemic embolism. In the primary analysis, the primary end point occurred in 188 patients in the rivaroxaban group (1.7% per year) and in 241 in the warfarin group (2.2% per year) (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.96; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 269 patients in the rivaroxaban group (2.1% per year) and in 306 patients in the warfarin group (2.4% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.03; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.12 for superiority). Major and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 1475 patients in the rivaroxaban group (14.9% per year) and in 1449 in the warfarin group (14.5% per year) (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P=0.44), with significant reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0.7%, P=0.02) and fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.5%, P=0.003) in the rivaroxaban group. In patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of major bleeding, although intracranial and fatal bleeding occurred less frequently in the rivaroxaban group. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer; ROCKET AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00403767.).
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            Prevention of VTE in orthopedic surgery patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.

            VTE is a serious, but decreasing complication following major orthopedic surgery. This guideline focuses on optimal prophylaxis to reduce postoperative pulmonary embolism and DVT. The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we recommend the use of one of the following rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis: low-molecular-weight heparin; fondaparinux; dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban (total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty but not hip fracture surgery); low-dose unfractionated heparin; adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist; aspirin (all Grade 1B); or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) (Grade 1C) for a minimum of 10 to 14 days. We suggest the use of low-molecular-weight heparin in preference to the other agents we have recommended as alternatives (Grade 2C/2B), and in patients receiving pharmacologic prophylaxis, we suggest adding an IPCD during the hospital stay (Grade 2C). We suggest extending thromboprophylaxis for up to 35 days (Grade 2B). In patients at increased bleeding risk, we suggest an IPCD or no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). In patients who decline injections, we recommend using apixaban or dabigatran (all Grade 1B). We suggest against using inferior vena cava filter placement for primary prevention in patients with contraindications to both pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). We recommend against Doppler (or duplex) ultrasonography screening before hospital discharge (Grade 1B). For patients with isolated lower-extremity injuries requiring leg immobilization, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2B). For patients undergoing knee arthroscopy without a history of VTE, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2B). Optimal strategies for thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery include pharmacologic and mechanical approaches.
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              Oral anticoagulants: mechanism of action, clinical effectiveness, and optimal therapeutic range.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Research Fellow
                Role: Research Fellow
                Role: Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
                Role: Medical Student
                Role: Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
                Role: Orthopaedic Surgeon
                Role: Orthopaedic Surgeon
                Role: Orthopaedic Surgeon
                Journal
                Bone Joint J
                Bone Joint J
                The Bone & Joint Journal
                British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery
                2049-4394
                2049-4408
                January 2018
                01 January 2018
                : 100-B
                : 1 Supple A
                : 68-75
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, 125 South 9th Street, Suite 1000, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
                [2 ]Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
                [3 ]Rothman Institute, 125 South 9th Street, Suite 1000, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be sent to J. Parvizi; email: javad.parvizi@ 123456rothmaninstitute.com
                Article
                BJJ-2017-0587.R1
                10.1302/0301-620X.100B1.BJJ-2017-0587.R1
                6424442
                29292343
                ©2018 Author(s) et al
                Categories
                Knee Arthroplasty: Management Factorials
                2
                Knee
                Venous thromboembolism
                Total Knee Arthroplasty
                Bilateral
                Aspirin
                Custom metadata
                1.0
                $2.00
                Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, United States
                Knee arthroplasty
                None declared

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