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      Sex differences in hypertension. Do we need a sex-specific guideline?


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          Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder and the leading cause of death worldwide in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertension is lower in premenopausal women than in men of the same age, but sharply increases after the menopause, resulting in higher rates in women aged 65 and older. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension are better in women. A sex-pooled analysis from 4 community-based cohort studies found increasing cardiovascular risk beginning at lower systolic blood pressure thresholds for women than men. Hormonal changes after the menopause play a substantial role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Female-specific causes of hypertension such as the use of contraceptive agents and assisted reproductive technologies have been identified. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are associated with increased risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as with a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Hypertension-mediated organ damage was found to be more prevalent in women, thus increasing the cardiovascular risk. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics have been observed, but their clinical implications are still a matter of debate. There are currently no sufficient data to support sex-based differences in the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment. Adverse drug reactions are more frequently reported in women. Women are still underrepresented in large clinical trials in hypertension, and not all of them report sex-specific results. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to oblige scientists to include women in clinical trials and to consider sex as a biological variable.

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          Most cited references146

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          2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension

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            Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

            A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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              Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2021 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association

              The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). The American Heart Association, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update. The 2021 Statistical Update is the product of a full year’s worth of effort by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. This year’s edition includes data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, an enhanced focus on social determinants of health, adverse pregnancy outcomes, vascular contributions to brain health, the global burden of cardiovascular disease, and further evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors related to cardiovascular disease. Each of the 27 chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.

                Author and article information

                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                23 August 2022
                : 9
                : 960336
                [1] 1Center for Cardiovascular Prevention, Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine and Thomayer University Hospital , Prague, Czechia
                [2] 2Department of Medicine II, Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine , Prague, Czechia
                [3] 3Department of Therapy No 1, Medical Diagnostics, Hematology and Transfusiology, Lviv Danylo Halytsky National Medical University , Lviv, Ukraine
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hester Den Ruijter, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Sanne Peters, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands; Bruno Trimarco, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                *Correspondence: Renata Cífková renata.cifkova@ 123456ftn.cz

                This article was submitted to Sex and Gender in Cardiovascular Medicine, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Copyright © 2022 Cífková and Strilchuk.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 15 June 2022
                : 03 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 147, Pages: 17, Words: 13307
                Cardiovascular Medicine

                epidemiology of hypertension,cardiovascular risk,white coat hypertension,masked hypertension,polycystic ovary syndrome,contraceptive agents,antihypertensive treatment,large clinical trials in hypertension


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