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Withdrawal of two generic clopidogrel products in Saudi Arabia for non-bio-equivalence

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      Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation.

      Despite current treatments, patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation have high rates of major vascular events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel when given with aspirin in such patients. We randomly assigned 12,562 patients who had presented within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms to receive clopidogrel (300 mg immediately, followed by 75 mg once daily) (6259 patients) or placebo (6303 patients) in addition to aspirin for 3 to 12 months. The first primary outcome--a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke--occurred in 9.3 percent of the patients in the clopidogrel group and 11.4 percent of the patients in the placebo group (relative risk with clopidogrel as compared with placebo, 0.80; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.90; P<0.001). The second primary outcome--the first primary outcome or refractory ischemia--occurred in 16.5 percent of the patients in the clopidogrel group and 18.8 percent of the patients in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.86; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.94; P<0.001). The percentages of patients with in-hospital refractory or severe ischemia, heart failure, and revascularization procedures were also significantly lower with clopidogrel. There were significantly more patients with major bleeding in the clopidogrel group than in the placebo group (3.7 percent vs. 2.7 percent; relative risk, 1.38; P=0.001), but there were not significantly more patients with episodes of life-threatening bleeding (2.2 percent [corrected] vs. 1.8 percent; P=0.13) or hemorrhagic strokes (0.1 percent vs. 0.1 percent). The antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has beneficial effects in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. However, the risk of major bleeding is increased among patients treated with clopidogrel.
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        Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel.

        Clopidogrel requires transformation into an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes for its antiplatelet effect. The genes encoding CYP enzymes are polymorphic, with common alleles conferring reduced function. We tested the association between functional genetic variants in CYP genes, plasma concentrations of active drug metabolite, and platelet inhibition in response to clopidogrel in 162 healthy subjects. We then examined the association between these genetic variants and cardiovascular outcomes in a separate cohort of 1477 subjects with acute coronary syndromes who were treated with clopidogrel in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38. In healthy subjects who were treated with clopidogrel, carriers of at least one CYP2C19 reduced-function allele (approximately 30% of the study population) had a relative reduction of 32.4% in plasma exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel, as compared with noncarriers (P<0.001). Carriers also had an absolute reduction in maximal platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel that was 9 percentage points less than that seen in noncarriers (P<0.001). Among clopidogrel-treated subjects in TRITON-TIMI 38, carriers had a relative increase of 53% in the composite primary efficacy outcome of the risk of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as compared with noncarriers (12.1% vs. 8.0%; hazard ratio for carriers, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.19; P=0.01) and an increase by a factor of 3 in the risk of stent thrombosis (2.6% vs. 0.8%; hazard ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.19 to 8.00; P=0.02). Among persons treated with clopidogrel, carriers of a reduced-function CYP2C19 allele had significantly lower levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel, diminished platelet inhibition, and a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, including stent thrombosis, than did noncarriers. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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          Clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack.

          Stroke is common during the first few weeks after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke. Combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin may provide greater protection against subsequent stroke than aspirin alone. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 114 centers in China, we randomly assigned 5170 patients within 24 hours after the onset of minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA to combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin (clopidogrel at an initial dose of 300 mg, followed by 75 mg per day for 90 days, plus aspirin at a dose of 75 mg per day for the first 21 days) or to placebo plus aspirin (75 mg per day for 90 days). All participants received open-label aspirin at a clinician-determined dose of 75 to 300 mg on day 1. The primary outcome was stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) during 90 days of follow-up in an intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment differences were assessed with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model, with study center as a random effect. Stroke occurred in 8.2% of patients in the clopidogrel-aspirin group, as compared with 11.7% of those in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.81; P<0.001). Moderate or severe hemorrhage occurred in seven patients (0.3%) in the clopidogrel-aspirin group and in eight (0.3%) in the aspirin group (P=0.73); the rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.3% in each group. Among patients with TIA or minor stroke who can be treated within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms, the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone for reducing the risk of stroke in the first 90 days and does not increase the risk of hemorrhage. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China; CHANCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979589.).
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]Department of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
            [b ]Pharmacy Services, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Dr. Abdullah Alsultan, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia, T: +96614677485 absultan@ 123456ksu.edu.sa , ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7013-8369
            Journal
            Ann Saudi Med
            Ann Saudi Med
            Annals of Saudi Medicine
            King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
            0256-4947
            0975-4466
            May-Jun 2018
            30 April 2018
            : 38
            : 3
            : 233-234
            29848943
            6074306
            10.5144/0256-4947.2018.233
            asm-3-233
            Copyright © 2018, Annals of Saudi Medicine

            This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). The details of which can be accessed at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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