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      Evolution of glandular structures on the scape of males in the genus Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae)

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The pores and associated glands on male antennae in species of Hymenoptera are involved in mate recognition and are diverse and widespread among taxa. However, nothing has been published about these structures in species of Aphelinus (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae), a genus of parasitoid wasps with a long history in biological control. Images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Aphelinus varipes revealed pores on the ventral side of the male scape that were connected to glands. A survey of the scapes of male antennae in 16 species in six species complexes of Aphelinus, as well as two outgroup species, Aphytis melinus and Centrodora sp., showed that pores were present in all except Centrodora sp. The pores varied in several characters: the shape of the structures that carried them, pore size, elevation of the cuticle surrounding the structures, the extent of a carina delimiting the area around the structures, and the number and position of pores. The shape of the pore-bearing structures, the elevation of cuticle around these structures, and the extent of the carina around them map well onto a molecular phylogeny of these Aphelinus species. Combinations of pore characters are diagnostic of species complexes, and in some cases, species of Aphelinus.

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          Most cited references 21

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            Mating behavior and chemical communication in the order Hymenoptera.

            Insects of the order Hymenoptera are biologically and economically important members of natural and agro ecosystems and exhibit diverse biologies, mating systems, and sex pheromones. We review what is known of their sex pheromone chemistry and function, paying particular emphasis to the Hymenoptera Aculeata (primarily ants, bees, and sphecid and vespid wasps), and provide a framework for the functional classification of their sex pheromones. Sex pheromones often comprise multicomponent blends derived from numerous exocrine tissues, including the cuticle. However, very few sex pheromones have been definitively characterized using bioassays, in part because of the behavioral sophistication of many Aculeata. The relative importance of species isolation versus sexual selection in shaping sex pheromone evolution is still unclear. Many species appear to discriminate among mates at the level of individual or kin/colony, and they use antiaphrodisiacs. Some orchids use hymenopteran sex pheromones to dupe males into performing pseudocopulation, with extreme species specificity.
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              Mating systems of blood-feeding flies.

               Boaz Yuval (2005)
              The mating system of each species is a unique, dynamic suite of interactions between the sexes. In this review I describe these interactions in the families of flies that contain blood-feeding species. A transition from the aerial swarm, with rapid copulae and no direct female choice, to substrate-based systems with lengthy copulae and opportunities for female choice is evident at both a phylogenetic scale and within nematoceran families under specific ecological conditions. Female monogamy is associated with the former, polyandry with the latter. I suggest that the intensity of sexual selection operating on males in systems where the probability of mating is low has favored male ability to control female receptivity. Reproductive success of males is universally correlated to successful foraging for sugar or blood and (in some species and ecological conditions) to body size. Understanding the ecological basis of the mating systems of these flies will help formulate integrative, sustainable, and biologically lucid approaches for their control.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                October 31 2019
                October 31 2019
                : 72
                : 27-43
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.72.36356
                © 2019

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