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      PECAM-1 drives β-catenin-mediated EndMT via internalization in colon cancer with diabetes mellitus


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          Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor in carcinogenesis and progression, although the biological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) internalization drives β-catenin-mediated endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) to link DM to cancer.


          The tumor microenvironment (TME) was investigated for differences between colon cancer with and without DM by mRNA-microarray analysis. The effect of DM on colon cancer was determined in clinical patients and animal models. Furthermore, EndMT, PECAM-1 and Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling were analyzed under high glucose (HG) and human colon cancer cell (HCCC) supernatant (SN) or coculture conditions by western and immunofluorescence tests.


          DM promoted the progression and EndMT occurrence of colon cancer (CC). Regarding the mechanism, DM induced PECAM-1 defection from the cytomembrane, internalization and subsequent accumulation around the cell nucleus in endothelial cells, which promoted β-catenin entry into the nucleus, leading to EndMT occurrence in CC with DM. Additionally, Akt/GSK-3β signaling was enhanced to inhibit the degradation of β-catenin, which regulates the process of EndMT.


          PECAM-1 defects and/or internalization are key events for β-catenin-mediated EndMT, which is significantly boosted by enhanced Akt/GSK-3β signaling in the DM-associated TME. This contributes to the mechanism by which DM promotes the carcinogenesis and progression of CC.

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          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12964-023-01193-2.

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          Most cited references29

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          Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis.

          Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects.
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            Is Open Access

            Tumor Microenvironment

            Background and Objectives: The tumor microenvironment has been widely implicated in tumorigenesis because it harbors tumor cells that interact with surrounding cells through the circulatory and lymphatic systems to influence the development and progression of cancer. In addition, nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment play critical roles in all the stages of carcinogenesis by stimulating and facilitating uncontrolled cell proliferation. Aim: This study aims to explore the concept of the tumor microenvironment by conducting a critical review of previous studies on the topic. Materials and Methods: This review relies on evidence presented in previous studies related to the topic. The articles included in this review were obtained from different medical and health databases. Results and Discussion: The tumor microenvironment has received significant attention in the cancer literature, with a particular focus on its role in tumor development and progression. Previous studies have identified various components of the tumor microenvironment that influence malignant behavior and progression. In addition to malignant cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, tumor vasculature, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts are present in the tumor microenvironment. Each of these cell types has unique immunological capabilities that determine whether the tumor will survive and affect neighboring cells. Conclusion: The tumor microenvironment harbors cancer stem cells and other molecules that contribute to tumor development and progression. Consequently, targeting and manipulating the cells and factors in the tumor microenvironment during cancer treatment can help control malignancies and achieve positive health outcomes.
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              Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition contributes to cardiac fibrosis.

              Cardiac fibrosis, associated with a decreased extent of microvasculature and with disruption of normal myocardial structures, results from excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which is mediated by the recruitment of fibroblasts. The source of these fibroblasts is unclear and specific anti-fibrotic therapies are not currently available. Here we show that cardiac fibrosis is associated with the emergence of fibroblasts originating from endothelial cells, suggesting an endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) similar to events that occur during formation of the atrioventricular cushion in the embryonic heart. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) induced endothelial cells to undergo EndMT, whereas bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) preserved the endothelial phenotype. The systemic administration of recombinant human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7) significantly inhibited EndMT and the progression of cardiac fibrosis in mouse models of pressure overload and chronic allograft rejection. Our findings show that EndMT contributes to the progression of cardiac fibrosis and that rhBMP-7 can be used to inhibit EndMT and to intervene in the progression of chronic heart disease associated with fibrosis.

                Author and article information

                Cell Commun Signal
                Cell Commun Signal
                Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS
                BioMed Central (London )
                14 August 2023
                14 August 2023
                : 21
                : 203
                [1 ]GRID grid.410736.7, ISNI 0000 0001 2204 9268, Department of Anatomy, , Harbin Medical University, ; Harbin, China
                [2 ]Department of Humanities Foundation, Heilongjiang Nursing College, Harbin, China
                [3 ]GRID grid.412463.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1762 6325, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, , the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, ; Harbin, China
                [4 ]GRID grid.412651.5, ISNI 0000 0004 1808 3502, Colorectal Cancer Surgical Ward 2, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, ; Harbin, China
                Author information
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 2 March 2023
                : 10 June 2023
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                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Cell biology
                colon cancer,diabetes mellitus,endmt,pecam-1,β-catenin
                Cell biology
                colon cancer, diabetes mellitus, endmt, pecam-1, β-catenin


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