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      Target Identification and Mode of Action of Four Chemically Divergent Drugs against Ebolavirus Infection

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          Abstract

          Here, we show that four chemically divergent approved drugs reported to inhibit Ebolavirus infection, benztropine, bepridil, paroxetine and sertraline, directly interact with the Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Binding of these drugs destabilizes the protein, suggesting that this may be the mechanism of inhibition, as reported for the anticancer drug toremifene and the painkiller ibuprofen, which bind in the same large cavity on the glycoprotein. Crystal structures show that the position of binding and the mode of interaction within the pocket vary significantly between these compounds. The binding constants ( K d) determined by thermal shift assay correlate with the protein–inhibitor interactions as well as with the antiviral activities determined by virus cell entry assays, supporting the hypothesis that these drugs inhibit viral entry by binding the glycoprotein and destabilizing the prefusion conformation. Details of the protein–inhibitor interactions of these complexes and their relation with binding affinity may facilitate the design of more potent inhibitors.

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          Most cited references29

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          Version 1.2 of the Crystallography and NMR system.

          Version 1.2 of the software system, termed Crystallography and NMR system (CNS), for crystallographic and NMR structure determination has been released. Since its first release, the goals of CNS have been (i) to create a flexible computational framework for exploration of new approaches to structure determination, (ii) to provide tools for structure solution of difficult or large structures, (iii) to develop models for analyzing structural and dynamical properties of macromolecules and (iv) to integrate all sources of information into all stages of the structure determination process. Version 1.2 includes an improved model for the treatment of disordered solvent for crystallographic refinement that employs a combined grid search and least-squares optimization of the bulk solvent model parameters. The method is more robust than previous implementations, especially at lower resolution, generally resulting in lower R values. Other advances include the ability to apply thermal factor sharpening to electron density maps. Consistent with the modular design of CNS, these additions and changes were implemented in the high-level computing language of CNS.
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            Ebola virus. Two-pore channels control Ebola virus host cell entry and are drug targets for disease treatment.

            Ebola virus causes sporadic outbreaks of lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans, but there is no currently approved therapy. Cells take up Ebola virus by macropinocytosis, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles. However, few factors controlling endosomal virus movement are known. Here we find that Ebola virus entry into host cells requires the endosomal calcium channels called two-pore channels (TPCs). Disrupting TPC function by gene knockout, small interfering RNAs, or small-molecule inhibitors halted virus trafficking and prevented infection. Tetrandrine, the most potent small molecule that we tested, inhibited infection of human macrophages, the primary target of Ebola virus in vivo, and also showed therapeutic efficacy in mice. Therefore, TPC proteins play a key role in Ebola virus infection and may be effective targets for antiviral therapy.
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              Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations.

              The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently discovered Lloviu virus (LLOV). Furthermore, we explain the etymological derivation of individual names, their pronunciation, and their correct use, and we elaborate on demarcation criteria for each taxon and virus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Med Chem
                J. Med. Chem
                jm
                jmcmar
                Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
                American Chemical Society
                0022-2623
                1520-4804
                22 December 2017
                08 February 2018
                : 61
                : 3
                : 724-733
                Affiliations
                []Division of Structural Biology, University of Oxford , The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7BN, U.K.
                []Diamond Light Source Ltd. , Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE, U.K.
                Author notes
                [* ]Fax: +44 (0)1865 287501. E-mail: dave@ 123456strubi.ox.ac.uk .
                Article
                10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01249
                5808380
                29272110
                67c6d056-e9d4-4d4f-924b-ae96951d2ad5
                Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                History
                : 22 August 2017
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                jm7b01249
                jm-2017-012498

                Pharmaceutical chemistry
                Pharmaceutical chemistry

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