We used acute and partial-lifecycle tests to examine the effects of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine on freshwater mussels (Unionida). In acute tests lasting 24-48 h, we determined median effective concentrations (EC50s) for fluoxetine with larval (glochidia viability) and juvenile (survival) life-stages of fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and black sandshell (Ligumia recta). In a 28-d behavioral test we exposed brooding adult female wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) to 0.37 and 29.3 μg/L fluoxetine to determine effects on adult behavior (foot protrusion, mantle lure display and glochidia parturition). We also assessed the effects of 24-h exposure of 1 and 100 μg/L fluoxetine on glochidia viability duration and metamorphosis success for the wavy-rayed lampmussel. Fluoxetine EC50s ranged from 62 μg/L for juveniles (96 h) to 293 μg/L for glochidia (24 h). In adults, statistically significant increases were observed in foot protrusion at 0.37 and 29.3 μg/L fluoxetine and lure display rates at 29.3 μg/L; glochidia parturition was not significantly affected at any test concentration. Twenty-four hour exposure of glochidia to fluoxetine did not affect viability duration, but likelihood of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage significantly increased with 1 and 100 μg/L treatments. Our results demonstrated effects of fluoxetine to unionid mussels at concentrations less than previously reported and approaching concentrations measured in surface waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.