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A Review on the Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Composed of Nanowires as Sensing Material

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      Abstract

      The development and application of nanowires for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reviewed in this article. Next generation sensor platforms will require significant improvements in sensitivity, specificity and parallelism in order to meet the future needs in variety of fields. Sensors made of nanowires exploit some fundamental nanoscopic effect in order to meet these requirements. Nanowires are new materials, which have the characteristic of low weight with extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. The advantages such as size scale, aspect ratio and other properties of nanowires are especially apparent in the use of electrical sensors such as electrochemical sensors and in the use of field-effect transistors. The preparation methods of nanowires and their properties are discussed along with their advantages towards electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Some key results from each article are summarized, relating the concept and mechanism behind each sensor, with experimental conditions as well as their behavior at different conditions.

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      Most cited references 102

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      Membrane-Based Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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        Conductance and supercurrent discontinuities in atomic-scale metallic constrictions of variable width.

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          Solubilization of carbon nanotubes by Nafion toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors.

          The ability to solubilize single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the presence of the perfluorinated polymer Nafion is described. Such use of Nafion as a solubilizing agent for CNT overcomes a major obstacle for creating CNT-based biosensing devices. Their association with Nafion does not impair the electrocatalytic properties of CNT. The resulting CNT/Nafion modified glassy-carbon electrodes exhibit a strong and stable electrocatalytic response toward hydrogen peroxide. The marked acceleration of the hydrogen peroxide redox process is very attractive for the operation of oxidase-based amperometric biosensors, as illustrated for the highly selective low-potential (-0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl) biosensing of glucose. These findings open the door for using CNT in a wide range of chemical sensors and nanoscale electronic devices.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (ROC)
            Author notes
            [*] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Fax: +886 2270 25238; Tel: +886 2270 17147; E-mail: smchen78@123456msl5.hinet.net
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
            1424-8220
            January 2008
            21 January 2008
            : 8
            : 1
            : 290-313
            3681128
            sensors-08-00290
            © 2008 by MDPI

            Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes.

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            Review
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