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      CRP and TNF-α  Induce PAPP-A Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

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      Mediators of Inflammation

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Objective. The effects of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) on pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) require further investigation. Methods. The PAPP-A levels in culture supernatants, PAPP-A mRNA expression, and cellular PAPP-A expression were measured in human PBMCs isolated from fresh blood donations provided by 6 healthy volunteers (4 donations per volunteer). Analyses were conducted by ultrasensitive ELISA, western blotting, and RT-PCR following stimulation with CRP or TNF- α cytokines. Results. PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels after CRP stimulation peaked at 24 hours, whereas peak PAPP-A mRNA and protein levels were achieved after TNF- α stimulation at only 2 and 8 hours, respectively. These findings indicate the dose-dependent effect of CRP and TNF- α stimulation. Actinomycin D treatment completely prevented CRP and TNF- α induction of PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Additionally, nuclear factor- (NF-) κ B inhibitor (BAY11-7082) potently inhibited both CRP and TNF- α stimulated PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions. Human PBMCs are capable of expressing PAPP-A in vitro, expression that may be regulated by CRP and TNF- α through the NF- κ B pathway. This mechanism may play a significant role in the observed increase of serum PAPP-A levels in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

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          Most cited references 41

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          Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A as a marker of acute coronary syndromes.

          Circulating markers indicating the instability of atherosclerotic plaques could have diagnostic value in unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), a potentially proatherosclerotic metalloproteinase, as a marker of acute coronary syndromes. We examined the level of expression of PAPP-A in eight culprit unstable coronary plaques and four stable plaques from eight patients who had died suddenly of cardiac causes. We also measured circulating levels of PAPP-A, C-reactive protein, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in 17 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 20 with unstable angina, 19 with stable angina, and 13 controls without atherosclerosis. PAPP-A was abundantly expressed in plaque cells and extracellular matrix of ruptured and eroded unstable plaques, but not in stable plaques. Circulating PAPP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction than in patients with stable angina and controls (P<0.001). A PAPP-A threshold value of 10 mlU per liter identified patients who had acute coronary syndromes with a sensitivity of 89.2 percent and a specificity of 81.3 percent. PAPP-A levels correlated with levels of C-reactive protein and free IGF-I, but not with markers of myocardial injury (troponin I and the MB isoform of creatine kinase). PAPP-A is present in unstable plaques, and circulating levels are elevated in acute coronary syndromes; these increased levels may reflect the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. PAPP-A is a new candidate marker of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.
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            The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent IGF binding protein-4 protease secreted by human fibroblasts is pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

            Proteolytic cleavage of the six known insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) is a powerful means of rapid structure and function modification of these important growth-regulatory proteins. Intact IGFBP-4 is a potent inhibitor of IGF action in vitro, and cleavage of IGFBP-4 has been shown to abolish its ability to inhibit IGF stimulatory effects in a variety of systems, suggesting that IGFBP-4 proteolysis acts as a positive regulator of IGF bioavailability. Here we report the isolation of an IGF-dependent IGFBP-4-specific protease from human fibroblast-conditioned media and its identification by mass spectrometry microsequencing as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a protein of unknown function found in high concentrations in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Antibodies raised against PAPP-A both inhibited and immunodepleted IGFBP-4 protease activity in human fibroblast-conditioned media. Moreover, PAPP-A purified from pregnancy sera had IGF-dependent IGFBP-4 protease activity. PAPP-A mRNA was expressed by the human fibroblasts and osteoblasts, and PAPP-A protein was secreted into the culture medium. In conclusion, we have identified an IGF-dependent IGFBP protease and at the same time assigned a function to PAPP-A. This represents an unanticipated union of two areas of research that were not linked in any way before this report.
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              Role of nuclear factor kappaB in cardiovascular health and disease.

              Cardiovascular pathologies are still the primary cause of death worldwide. The molecular mechanisms behind these pathologies have not been fully elucidated. Unravelling them will bring us closer to therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease. One of the major transcription factors that has been linked to both cardiovascular health and disease is NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB). The NF-kappaB family controls multiple processes, including immunity, inflammation, cell survival, differentiation and proliferation, and regulates cellular responses to stress, hypoxia, stretch and ischaemia. It is therefore not surprising that NF-kappaB has been shown to influence numerous cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury, ischaemic preconditioning, vein graft disease, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The function of NF-kappaB is largely dictated by the genes that it targets for transcription and varies according to stimulus and cell type. Thus NF-kappaB has divergent functions and can protect cardiovascular tissues from injury or contribute to pathogenesis depending on the cellular and physiological context. The present review will focus on recent studies on the function of NF-kappaB in the cardiovascular system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2012
                11 September 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira

                Article
                10.1155/2012/697832
                3446755
                22997483
                Copyright © 2012 Weiping Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Clinical Study

                Immunology

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