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      Automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

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          EVidenceModeler (EVM) is an automated annotation tool that predicts protein-coding regions, alternatively spliced transcripts and untranslated regions of eukaryotic genes.


          EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Ab initio gene finding in Drosophila genomic DNA.

          Ab initio gene identification in the genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster was obtained using (human gene predictor) and Fgenesh programs that have organism-specific parameters for human, Drosophila, plants, yeast, and nematode. We did not use information about cDNA/EST in most predictions to model a real situation for finding new genes because information about complete cDNA is often absent or based on very small partial fragments. We investigated the accuracy of gene prediction on different levels and designed several schemes to predict an unambiguous set of genes (annotation CGG1), a set of reliable exons (annotation CGG2), and the most complete set of exons (annotation CGG3). For 49 genes, protein products of which have clear homologs in protein databases, predictions were recomputed by Fgenesh+ program. The first annotation serves as the optimal computational description of new sequence to be presented in a database. Reliable exons from the second annotation serve as good candidates for selecting the PCR primers for experimental work for gene structure verification. Our results shows that we can identify approximately 90% of coding nucleotides with 20% false positives. At the exon level we accurately predicted 65% of exons and 89% including overlapping exons with 49% false positives. Optimizing accuracy of prediction, we designed a gene identification scheme using Fgenesh, which provided sensitivity (Sn) = 98% and specificity (Sp) = 86% at the base level, Sn = 81% (97% including overlapping exons) and Sp = 58% at the exon level and Sn = 72% and Sp = 39% at the gene level (estimating sensitivity on std1 set and specificity on std3 set). In general, these results showed that computational gene prediction can be a reliable tool for annotating new genomic sequences, giving accurate information on 90% of coding sequences with 14% false positives. However, exact gene prediction (especially at the gene level) needs additional improvement using gene prediction algorithms. The program was also tested for predicting genes of human Chromosome 22 (the last variant of Fgenesh can analyze the whole chromosome sequence). This analysis has demonstrated that the 88% of manually annotated exons in Chromosome 22 were among the ab initio predicted exons. The suite of gene identification programs is available through the WWW server of Computational Genomics Group at html.
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            GeneMark.hmm: new solutions for gene finding.

             A. Lukashin (1998)
            The number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes has been growing fast. There are computer methods available for finding genes but yet there is a need for more accurate algorithms. The GeneMark. hmm algorithm presented here was designed to improve the gene prediction quality in terms of finding exact gene boundaries. The idea was to embed the GeneMark models into naturally derived hidden Markov model framework with gene boundaries modeled as transitions between hidden states. We also used the specially derived ribosome binding site pattern to refine predictions of translation initiation codons. The algorithm was evaluated on several test sets including 10 complete bacterial genomes. It was shown that the new algorithm is significantly more accurate than GeneMark in exact gene prediction. Interestingly, the high gene finding accuracy was observed even in the case when Markov models of order zero, one and two were used. We present the analysis of false positive and false negative predictions with the caution that these categories are not precisely defined if the public database annotation is used as a control.
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              Gene prediction in eukaryotes with a generalized hidden Markov model that uses hints from external sources

              Background In order to improve gene prediction, extrinsic evidence on the gene structure can be collected from various sources of information such as genome-genome comparisons and EST and protein alignments. However, such evidence is often incomplete and usually uncertain. The extrinsic evidence is usually not sufficient to recover the complete gene structure of all genes completely and the available evidence is often unreliable. Therefore extrinsic evidence is most valuable when it is balanced with sequence-intrinsic evidence. Results We present a fairly general method for integration of external information. Our method is based on the evaluation of hints to potentially protein-coding regions by means of a Generalized Hidden Markov Model (GHMM) that takes both intrinsic and extrinsic information into account. We used this method to extend the ab initio gene prediction program AUGUSTUS to a versatile tool that we call AUGUSTUS+. In this study, we focus on hints derived from matches to an EST or protein database, but our approach can be used to include arbitrary user-defined hints. Our method is only moderately effected by the length of a database match. Further, it exploits the information that can be derived from the absence of such matches. As a special case, AUGUSTUS+ can predict genes under user-defined constraints, e.g. if the positions of certain exons are known. With hints from EST and protein databases, our new approach was able to predict 89% of the exons in human chromosome 22 correctly. Conclusion Sensitive probabilistic modeling of extrinsic evidence such as sequence database matches can increase gene prediction accuracy. When a match of a sequence interval to an EST or protein sequence is used it should be treated as compound information rather than as information about individual positions.

                Author and article information

                Genome Biol
                Genome Biology
                BioMed Central
                11 January 2008
                : 9
                : 1
                : R7
                [1 ]J Craig Venter Institute, The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Maryland 20850, USA
                [2 ]Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
                [3 ]Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Computer Science, 3125 Biomolecular Sciences Bldg #296, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
                [4 ]Computation Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550, USA
                [5 ]Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
                [6 ]Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
                Copyright © 2008 Haas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.




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