The fasting serum concentrations of total homocysteine and metabolites of transsulfuration (cystathionine, cysteine, methylmalonic acid, 2-methylcitric acid) and remethylation (methionine) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 40 nondialyzed patients with chronic renal disease and in 50 patients with end-stage renal disease requiring chronic maintenance hemodialysis. The nondialyzed patients and 28 of the dialysis patients did not receive additional vitamin supplementations. Twenty-two of the dialysis patients received daily oral vitamin preparations containing 10 mg pyridoxine (vitamin B<sub>6</sub>), 6 µg cyanocobalamin (vitamin B<sub>12</sub>), and 1 mg folic acid. In the nondialyzed patients, linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between serum concentrations of creatinine and total homocysteine (r = 0.68, p < 0.0001), cystathionine (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001), methylmalonic acid (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001), and 2-methylcitric acid (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Serum homocysteine was positively correlated with serum concentrations of cystathionine (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), cysteine (r = 0.69, p = 0.004), methylmalonic acid (r = 0.64, p = 0.0001), and 2-methylcitric acid (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between serum concentrations of homocysteine and methionine (r = –0.14, p = 0.63). In the hemodialysis patients receiving oral vitamin supplementation, serum homocysteine and cystathionine concentrations were significantly lower than in hemodialysis patients not receiving vitamins (homocysteine 21.8 ± 1.1 vs. 33.2 ± 3.7 µmol/l, p = 0.0004; cystathionine 2,075.9 ± 387.1 vs. 3,171.3 ± 680.2 nmol/l, p = 0.02; mean ± SEM). In summary, our results show increased intermediate products of the transsulfuration pathway, but no increase in remethylation of homocysteine in chronic renal disease, including end-stage renal disease requiring chronic maintenance dialysis.