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      In vitro modeling of blood–brain barrier and interface functions in neuroimmune communication

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          Abstract

          Neuroimmune communication contributes to both baseline and adaptive physiological functions, as well as disease states. The vascular blood–brain barrier (BBB) and associated cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU) serve as an important interface for immune communication between the brain and periphery through the blood. Immune functions and interactions of the BBB and NVU in this context can be categorized into at least five neuroimmune axes, which include (1) immune modulation of BBB impermeability, (2) immune regulation of BBB transporters, secretions, and other functions, (3) BBB uptake and transport of immunoactive substances, (4) immune cell trafficking, and (5) BBB secretions of immunoactive substances. These axes may act separately or in concert to mediate various aspects of immune signaling at the BBB. Much of what we understand about immune axes has been from work conducted using in vitro BBB models, and recent advances in BBB and NVU modeling highlight the potential of these newer models for improving our understanding of how the brain and immune system communicate. In this review, we discuss how conventional in vitro models of the BBB have improved our understanding of the 5 neuroimmune axes. We further evaluate the existing literature on neuroimmune functions of novel in vitro BBB models, such as those derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and discuss their utility in evaluating aspects of neuroimmune communication.

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          Most cited references 96

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          The Mouse Blood-Brain Barrier Transcriptome: A New Resource for Understanding the Development and Function of Brain Endothelial Cells

          The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis and limits the entry of toxins and pathogens into the brain. Despite its importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the development and function of this crucial barrier. In this study we have developed methods to highly purify and gene profile endothelial cells from different tissues, and by comparing the transcriptional profile of brain endothelial cells with those purified from the liver and lung, we have generated a comprehensive resource of transcripts that are enriched in the BBB forming endothelial cells of the brain. Through this comparison we have identified novel tight junction proteins, transporters, metabolic enzymes, signaling components, and unknown transcripts whose expression is enriched in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells. This analysis has identified that RXRalpha signaling cascade is specifically enriched at the BBB, implicating this pathway in regulating this vital barrier. This dataset provides a resource for understanding CNS endothelial cells and their interaction with neural and hematogenous cells.
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            Trafficking of immune cells in the central nervous system.

            The CNS is an immune-privileged environment, yet the local control of multiple pathogens is dependent on the ability of immune cells to access and operate within this site. However, inflammation of the distinct anatomical sites (i.e., meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, and parenchyma) associated with the CNS can also be deleterious. Therefore, control of lymphocyte entry and migration within the brain is vital to regulate protective and pathological responses. In this review, several recent advances are highlighted that provide new insights into the processes that regulate leukocyte access to, and movement within, the brain.
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              Stepwise recruitment of transcellular and paracellular pathways underlies blood-brain barrier breakdown in stroke.

              Brain endothelial cells form a paracellular and transcellular barrier to many blood-borne solutes via tight junctions (TJs) and scarce endocytotic vesicles. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a pivotal role in the healthy and diseased CNS. BBB damage after ischemic stroke contributes to increased mortality, yet the contributions of paracellular and transcellular mechanisms to this process in vivo are unknown. We have created a transgenic mouse strain whose endothelial TJs are labeled with eGFP and have imaged dynamic TJ changes and fluorescent tracer leakage across the BBB in vivo, using two-photon microscopy in the t-MCAO stroke model. Although barrier function is impaired as early as 6 hr after stroke, TJs display profound structural defects only after 2 days. Conversely, the number of endothelial caveolae and transcytosis rate increase as early as 6 hr after stroke. Therefore, stepwise impairment of transcellular followed by paracellular barrier mechanisms accounts for the BBB deficits in stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wabanks1@uw.edu
                Journal
                Fluids Barriers CNS
                Fluids Barriers CNS
                Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
                BioMed Central (London )
                2045-8118
                30 March 2020
                30 March 2020
                2020
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.413919.7, ISNI 0000 0004 0420 6540, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, , VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, ; Seattle, WA 98108 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.34477.33, ISNI 0000000122986657, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, , University of Washington, ; Seattle, WA 98104 USA
                Article
                187
                10.1186/s12987-020-00187-3
                7106666
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000738, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000049, National Institute On Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number;
                Award ID: R21AG065928
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2020

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