Patterns of β-diversity can provide insight into forces shaping community assembly. We analyzed species-rich insect assemblages in two reserve fragments that had once been part of one contiguous Mediterranean coastal pine forest. Local environments are still similar across both fragments, but their landscape context differs strongly, with one surrounded by intense agricultural land, while the other neighbors the urbanized area of Ravenna. Using 23,870 light-trap records of 392 moth species, and multiple local and landscape metrics, we compared the relative importance of habitat- versus landscape-scale environmental factors for shaping small-scale variation in differentiation and proportional insect β-diversity across 30 sites per reserve. Moth assemblage composition differed substantially between fragments, most likely due to ecological drift and landscape-scale variation. For proportional β-diversity, especially local forest structure was important. At well-developed forest sites, additive homogenization could be observed, whereas the lack of typical forest species at dry, dense, and younger forest sites increased species turnover (subtractive heterogenization). For differentiation β-diversity, local and landscape-scale factors were equally important in both reserves. At the landscape-scale (500 m radius around light-trapping sites) the proximity to urban areas and the fraction of human-altered land were most important. At the habitat scale, gradients in soil humidity, nutrient levels and forest structure mattered most, whereas plant diversity had very little explanatory power. Overall, landscape-scale anthropogenic alterations had major effects on moth communities inside the two conservation areas. Yet, even for these parts of one formerly contiguous forest trajectories in community change were remarkably idiosyncratic.