2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery: From Simple Potions to Smart Technologies

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          This overview on skin delivery considers the evolution of the principles of percutaneous ab-sorption and skin products from ancient times to today. Over the ages, it has been recognised that products may be applied to the skin for either local or systemic effects. As our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the skin has improved, this has facilitated the development of technologies to effectively and quantitatively deliver solutes across this barrier to specific target sites in the skin and beyond. We focus on these technologies and their role in skin delivery today and in the future.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 169

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Multifunctional wearable devices for diagnosis and therapy of movement disorders.

          Wearable systems that monitor muscle activity, store data and deliver feedback therapy are the next frontier in personalized medicine and healthcare. However, technical challenges, such as the fabrication of high-performance, energy-efficient sensors and memory modules that are in intimate mechanical contact with soft tissues, in conjunction with controlled delivery of therapeutic agents, limit the wide-scale adoption of such systems. Here, we describe materials, mechanics and designs for multifunctional, wearable-on-the-skin systems that address these challenges via monolithic integration of nanomembranes fabricated with a top-down approach, nanoparticles assembled by bottom-up methods, and stretchable electronics on a tissue-like polymeric substrate. Representative examples of such systems include physiological sensors, non-volatile memory and drug-release actuators. Quantitative analyses of the electronics, mechanics, heat-transfer and drug-diffusion characteristics validate the operation of individual components, thereby enabling system-level multifunctionalities.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Microneedles for drug and vaccine delivery.

            Microneedles were first conceptualized for drug delivery many decades ago, but only became the subject of significant research starting in the mid-1990's when microfabrication technology enabled their manufacture as (i) solid microneedles for skin pretreatment to increase skin permeability, (ii) microneedles coated with drug that dissolves off in the skin, (iii) polymer microneedles that encapsulate drug and fully dissolve in the skin and (iv) hollow microneedles for drug infusion into the skin. As shown in more than 350 papers now published in the field, microneedles have been used to deliver a broad range of different low molecular weight drugs, biotherapeutics and vaccines, including published human studies with a number of small-molecule and protein drugs and vaccines. Influenza vaccination using a hollow microneedle is in widespread clinical use and a number of solid microneedle products are sold for cosmetic purposes. In addition to applications in the skin, microneedles have also been adapted for delivery of bioactives into the eye and into cells. Successful application of microneedles depends on device function that facilitates microneedle insertion and possible infusion into skin, skin recovery after microneedle removal, and drug stability during manufacturing, storage and delivery, and on patient outcomes, including lack of pain, skin irritation and skin infection, in addition to drug efficacy and safety. Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Immune surveillance in the skin: mechanisms and clinical consequences

              Key Points The skin, together with other epithelial-cell interfaces with a hostile environment, supports a range of passive and active immune defence mechanisms. Cutaneous immune responses serve as a model for the study of interactions between innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Adaptive immune surveillance addresses the logistical challenge of targeting naive, effector and memory T cells to their respective sites of function by using distinct homing mechanisms at different stages of the immune response, termed primary, secondary and tertiary immune surveillance. Primary immune surveillance involves the process by which tissue dendritic cells are induced to engulf foreign particles, undergo maturation and emigrate through the afferent lymphatics to the local draining lymph node, where they encounter naive T cells recruited from the peripheral circulation. This greatly increases the efficiency with which naive T cells are exposed to antigens presented by professional antigen-presenting cells. Secondary immune surveillance involves the production and distribution of antigen-specific effector memory T cells that express homing receptors that direct their migration back to the tissue draining the lymph node where activation occurred and their participation in tissue-based immune responses. The persistence of memory T cells with both antigen and tissue specificity also protects against possible future encounters with the same pathogen, by providing a population of antigen-specific effector cells pre-targeted to the site where exposure to that pathogen might most probably recur. Tertiary immune surveillance involves the production of central memory and effector cells potentially directed to lymph nodes and tissues other than the site of primary exposure, providing broad coverage in the event that the pathogen is encountered through a different route. These concepts have implications for the understanding of both inflammatory skin disorders and the development of antitumour and antipathogen vaccine strategies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Drug Deliv
                Curr Drug Deliv
                CDD
                Current Drug Delivery
                Bentham Science Publishers
                1567-2018
                1875-5704
                June 2019
                June 2019
                : 16
                : 5
                : 444-460
                Affiliations
                School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology , Perth, , Western Australia ;

                Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, QLD, 4102, , Australia, 1

                School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia , Adelaide, , Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, 6845 Western Australia; Tel: +61892662338; Fax: +61892662769; E-mail: h.benson@ 123456curtin.edu.au
                Article
                CDD-16-444
                10.2174/1567201816666190201143457
                6637104
                30714524
                © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article