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      Collection and characterization of grapevine genetic resources ( Vitis vinifera) in the Holy Land, towards the renewal of ancient winemaking practices

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          Abstract

          The importance and extent of wine consumption in all life aspects at the Holy Land is well documented. The Muslim influence in this region led to the abandonment of winemaking practices, and possible loss of indigenous wine varieties. Here we present a country wide collection of the local grapevine population including wild and cultivated forms, and its characterization by genetic, ampelographic and enological methods. The ampelographic analysis shows clear differences between Sativa and Sylvestris groups in flower, leaf and cluster parameters, and that most Sativa belong to proles orientalis. Genetic population analysis was conducted by analyzing 22 common SSR markers, determining first the unique genotypes, and internally assessing the population’s structure, showing the existence of two distinct Sativa and Sylvestris populations, and a third mixed one. Likewise, the relationship between the Israeli grapevine population and grapevine populations in Europe and parts of Asia was investigated, showing that the Israeli Sativa and Sylvestris populations cluster closely together, suggesting a common genetic source. Lastly, the enological characteristics of selected Sativa and Sylvestris genotypes are presented, demonstrating their potential for quality wine production. This research significantly contributes toward the re-establishment of indigenous and traditional local grapevine varieties into the modern international wine industry.

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          The bHLH transcription factor SPATULA regulates root growth by controlling the size of the root meristem

          Background The Arabidopsis thaliana gene SPATULA (SPT), encoding a bHLH transcription factor, was originally identified for its role in pistil development. SPT is necessary for the growth and development of all carpel margin tissues including the style, stigma, septum and transmitting tract. Since then, it has been shown to have pleiotropic roles during development, including restricting the meristematic region of the leaf primordia and cotyledon expansion. Although SPT is expressed in roots, its role in this organ has not been investigated. Results An analysis of embryo and root development showed that loss of SPT function causes an increase in quiescent center size in both the embryonic and postembryonic stem cell niches. In addition, root meristem size is larger due to increased division, which leads to a longer primary root. spt mutants exhibit other pleiotropic developmental phenotypes, including more flowers, shorter internodes and an extended flowering period. Genetic and molecular analysis suggests that SPT regulates cell proliferation in parallel to gibberellic acid as well as affecting auxin accumulation or transport. Conclusions Our data suggest that SPT functions in growth control throughout sporophytic growth of Arabidopsis, but is not necessary for cell fate decisions except during carpel development. SPT functions independently of gibberellic acid during root development, but may play a role in regulating auxin transport or accumulation. Our data suggests that SPT plays a role in control of root growth, similar to its roles in above ground tissues.
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            Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

            The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations.
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              Evidence of a secondary grapevine domestication centre detected by SSR analysis.

              The origin of the grapevine was investigated with archaeobotanical, cultural and historical data. A primary domestication centre was located in the Near East region but there is no agreement on the existence or role of secondary domestication centres. In this work, PCR-based microsatellite analysis has been applied to study the origin of some Italian cultivated grapevines from in situ direct domestication of the wild autoctonous grapevine. Three different Italian locations in Grosseto, Cosenza and Nuoro were identified for this study, and domesticated grapevine as well as wild local accessions growing in these location, were analysed by SSR markers. Cluster analysis performed on Cosenza and Grosseto samples showed a high value of genetic distance between domesticated and wild accessions. On the contrary two cultivars (Bovale Murru and Bovale Muristellu) recovered in Nuoro (in the Sardinia island) were very close to some wild varieties. This suggests that the latter two cultivars may have originated from wild grapevines and consequently that in this location a secondary grapevine domestication event occurred. Six Lambrusco varieties were also included in this analysis as ancient putative ancestors of the cultivated grapevines. The molecular analysis excluded this hypothesis and suggest Lambrusco as an independent Vitis taxon.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                17 March 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 44463
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Ariel University , Ariel, Israel
                [2 ]Agriculture and Oenology Research Dept., Eastern R&D center , Ariel, Israel
                [3 ]Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach , San Michele all’Adige, (TN) Italy
                [4 ]Department of Molecular Biology, Ariel university , Ariel, Israel
                [5 ]Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan , Italy
                [6 ]The Martin (Szusz) Department of Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology, Bar-Ilan University , Ramat-Gan, Israel
                [7 ]Center Agriculture Food Environment, University of Trento , San Michele all’Adige (TN) Italy
                Author notes
                Article
                srep44463
                10.1038/srep44463
                5358690
                28303928
                682e615a-1b08-472b-9ec2-b6af2ae8ff58
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 05 December 2016
                : 08 February 2017
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