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      Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

      1 , 2

      Nature chemistry

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          Abstract

          Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nat Chem
          Nature chemistry
          1755-4349
          1755-4330
          Jan 2015
          : 7
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] 1] Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides UPJV, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens, France [2] ALISTORE-European Research Institute, 80039 Amiens, France [3] Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France.
          [2 ] 1] ALISTORE-European Research Institute, 80039 Amiens, France [2] Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France [3] Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France [4] Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
          nchem.2085
          10.1038/nchem.2085
          25515886

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