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Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

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Nature chemistry

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      Abstract

      Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] 1] Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides UPJV, CNRS UMR 7314, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens, France [2] ALISTORE-European Research Institute, 80039 Amiens, France [3] Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France.
      [2 ] 1] ALISTORE-European Research Institute, 80039 Amiens, France [2] Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l'Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, France [3] Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France [4] Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
      Journal
      Nat Chem
      Nature chemistry
      1755-4349
      1755-4330
      Jan 2015
      : 7
      : 1
      25515886 nchem.2085 10.1038/nchem.2085

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