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      Reconstructing the phylogeny of the hornless rhinoceros Aceratheriinae

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      Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
      Frontiers Media SA

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          Abstract

          This study presents the first phylogenetic analysis focused on the subfamily Aceratheriinae to date, with 392 characters (361 parsimony-informative characters) coded from 50 taxa at the species level. We added 80 newly defined and 33 revised characteristics to an existing matrix, covering features of the skull, teeth, and postcranial bones. Based on the results of ordered and unordered analyses, combined with a diagnosis in accordance with traditional morphological taxonomy, we revised the diagnosis of Aceratheriinae and reconstructed the phylogeny of Aceratheriinae. The tribe Teleoceratini, as well as the tribe Aceratheriini, was reclassified within Aceratheriinae; however, the traditionally established contents of each tribe were changed somewhat. Aceratheriinae underwent evolutionary adaptation several times during the early stages of its evolution, and several genera are herein reconstructed as early-diverging taxa, such as Floridaceras, Chilotheridium, and Plesiaceratherium. Turkanatherium and Protaceratherium are excluded from Aceratheriinae in this study. We suggest another two subclades of Aceratheriinae, containing Hoploaceratherium and Aprotodon, respectively. Aceratheriini and Teleoceratini are redefined as two highly specialized groups of Aceratheriinae.

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          TNT version 1.5, including a full implementation of phylogenetic morphometrics

          Version 1.5 of the computer program TNT completely integrates landmark data into phylogenetic analysis. Landmark data consist of coordinates (in two or three dimensions) for the terminal taxa; TNT reconstructs shapes for the internal nodes such that the difference between ancestor and descendant shapes for all tree branches sums up to a minimum; this sum is used as tree score. Landmark data can be analysed alone or in combination with standard characters; all the applicable commands and options in TNT can be used transparently after reading a landmark data set. The program continues implementing all the types of analyses in former versions, including discrete and continuous characters (which can now be read at any scale, and automatically rescaled by TNT). Using algorithms described in this paper, searches for landmark data can be made tens to hundreds of times faster than it was possible before (from T to 3T times faster, where T is the number of taxa), thus making phylogenetic analysis of landmarks feasible even on standard personal computers.
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            TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis

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              Character Analysis in Morphological Phylogenetics: Problems and Solutions

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
                Front. Ecol. Evol.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-701X
                February 16 2023
                February 16 2023
                : 11
                Article
                10.3389/fevo.2023.1005126
                68413c69-5492-4e48-ae40-38eac4f990f3
                © 2023

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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