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      Tissue Trace Element Change after Total Body Irradiation

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          Abstract

          Purpose: In this study, we examined the changes of tissue contents of trace elements and iron after total body irradiation (TBI) and their possible impact on late toxicities. Material and Methods: 20 female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups – either radiation (n = 10) or control (n = 10). Rats in the radiation group received TBI of 5 Gy in a single fraction. Rats were sacrificed and tissue samples of heart, lung and kidney were taken 8 weeks after radiation. Tissue levels of zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese and iron analysis were performed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and suprapure grade standard solutions. One kidney of each animal was taken for electron microscopic analysis. Blood samples were collected from all animals and the blood chemistry related to kidney function was studied. Results: The kidney levels of Fe and Cu significantly increased 8 weeks after irradiation (p < 0.05). The Cu/Zn ratio did not reach statistical significance in any tissue, however in kidney, there was a tendency to rise (p = 0.08). Myocardium and lung content of trace elements and iron did not show any significant change 8 weeks after irradiation. Electron microscopic analysis showed significant injury in glomerular endothelial cells, renal tubules and thickening of basement membrane. Blood chemistry showed a significant rise in serum creatinine (p = 0.008) and calcium (p = 0.01) in the TBI group. Serum creatinine levels were 0.73 and 0.84 mg/dl, and serum calcium levels were 10.1 and 11.3 mg/dl in control and TBI groups, respectively. Conclusion: A sublethal dose of TBI causes deposition of Cu and Fe within the kidney after TBI. Deposition of these elements may have some additional role on the toxicity caused by direct radiation on the kidney.

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          Most cited references 3

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          In vitro and in vivo evidence suggesting a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

          Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent that has nephrotoxicity as a major side effect. The underlying mechanism of this nephrotoxicity is still not well known. Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, presumably through the generation of hydroxyl radicals via the Haber-Weiss reaction or other highly toxic free radicals. In the present study we examined the catalytic iron content and the effect of iron chelators in an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells (renal tubular epithelial cells) and in an in vivo model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in bleomycin-detectable iron (iron capable of catalyzing free radical reactions) released into the medium. Concurrent incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with iron chelators including deferoxamine and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Bleomycin-detectable iron content was also markedly increased in the kidney of rats treated with cisplatin. Similarly, administration of deferoxamine in rats provided marked functional (as measured by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histological protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. In a separate study, we examined the role of hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with cisplatin caused an increase in hydroxyl radical formation. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol and benzoic acid, significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and, treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylthiourea provided significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Taken together, our data strongly support a critical role for iron in mediating tissue injury via hydroxyl radical (or a similar oxidant) in this model of nephrotoxicity.
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            Sequence-modulated radiosensitization of DNA by copper ions.

            Plasmid DNA and restriction fragments of 80 and 120 base pairs were irradiated with fast neutrons in the presence of CuCl2. The number of single and double strand breaks is higher in the presence than in the absence of Cu2+ ions. The radiosensitizing effect was lower for solutions of high compared with low ionic strength, and also lower for deoxygenated than for aerated solutions. This effect was inhibited by EDTA, catalase and Tris, but not by ethanol. Superoxide dismutase partially inhibited the effect of low copper concentrations ( cytosines) situated 5' to one or several purines (guanine > adenine) or located between two purines, at runs of purines (guanine > adenine), and at combinations of such sequences. The results can be only partially explained by a Fenton-like mechanism involving radiation induced hydrated electrons and hydrogen peroxide, which produces OH. radicals at the sites of binding of copper on DNA. The regions around these binding sites may undergo conformational changes. A second path for sensitization could be the enhancement of the efficiency of cleavage by the radiolytically produced OH. radicals in these conformationally modified regions.
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              Sequential changes in serum iron and ferritin in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and radiation with autologous bone marrow transplantation: Possible implications for treatment related toxicity

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2003
                May 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 1
                : e12-e16
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Sihhiye, Ankara, bDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Urfa, and cDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey
                Article
                70814 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e12–e16
                10.1159/000070814
                12806183
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 16, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/70814
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Copper, Trace element, Metal, Nephropathy, Total body irradiation, Iron

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