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      Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection

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      1 , 2 ,
      Virology Journal
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ≥85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.

          Results

          Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain.

          Conclusion

          The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.

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          Most cited references22

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          An apparently new enterovirus isolated from patients with disease of the central nervous system.

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            GeneDoc: Analysis and visualization of genetic variation

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              A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 strain causes neurological disease in mice after oral infection.

              A mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain with increased virulence in mice, MP4, was generated after four serial passages of the parental EV71 strain 4643 in mice. Strain MP4 exhibited a larger plaque size, grew more rapidly, and was more cytotoxic in vitro than strain 4643. Although strains 4643 and MP4 both induced apoptosis of SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, MP4 was more virulent than 4643 in 1-day-old mice (50% lethal doses, 10(2) and 10(4) PFU/mouse, respectively). Strain MP4 (5 x 10(6) PFU/mouse), but not 4643, could orally infect 7-day-old mice, resulting in rear-limb paralysis followed by death 5 to 9 days after inoculation with the virus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss and apoptosis were evident in the spinal cords as well as the brain stems of the infected mice. The limb muscles displayed massive necrosis. There was early and transient virus replication in the intestines, whereas the spinal cord, brain, and muscle became the sites of viral replication during the late phase of the infection. Virus transmission occurred among infected and noninfected cagemates, as demonstrated by the occurrence of seroconversion and the presence of viable viruses in the stool samples of the latter. Protection against EV71 challenge was demonstrated following administration of hyperimmune serum 1 day after inoculation with the virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genome of EV71 strain MP4 revealed four nucleotide changes on the 5' untranslated region, three on the VP2 region, and eight on the 2C region, resulting in one and four amino acid substitutions in the VP2 and 2C proteins, respectively.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virol J
                Virology Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1743-422X
                2005
                26 August 2005
                : 2
                : 74
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Sime Darby Technology Centre, 2, Jalan Tandang, 46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Article
                1743-422X-2-74
                10.1186/1743-422X-2-74
                1215528
                16122396
                6846bd36-4cf7-4300-a3a1-90ab8ecd997f
                Copyright © 2005 Chan and AbuBakar; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 22 June 2005
                : 26 August 2005
                Categories
                Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                Microbiology & Virology

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