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      Soft coral Cespitularia stolonifera: New cytotoxic ceramides and gastroprotective activity

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          Abstract

          In the present study, a new ceramide, namely 2 S, 3 R-4 E, 8 E-2-(heptadecanoylamino)-heptadeca-4, 8-diene-1, 3-diol ( 1), along with four known steroids, including 24-methylcholesta-5, 24(28)-diene-3 β-ol ( 2), 24-methylcholesta-5, 24(28)-diene-3 β-acetate ( 3), 4-methyl-24-methylcholesta- 22-ene-3-ol ( 4), and cholesterol, was isolated and characterized from CH 2Cl 2/MeOH extract of Cespitularia stolonifera. A new acetate derivative of compound 1, termed 2 S, 3 R-4 E, 8 E-2-(heptadecanoylamino)-heptadeca-4, 8-diene-1, 3-diacetate ( 1a), was also prepared in the present study. All the structures were established on the basis of modern spectroscopic techniques, including FT-IR, 1D, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and GC-MS, in addition of chemical methods. (–)-Alloaromadendren, ledane, (1)-alloaromadendren oxide, isoaromadendrene epoxide and (–)-caryophellen oxide were identified from the n-hexane fraction using GC-MS. The extract and the two ceramides ( 1) and ( 1a) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against lung cancer A549 cells, while the extract and the two steroids ( 2) and ( 3) exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The CH 2Cl 2/MeOH extract exhibited significant antiulcer activity in both ethanol and acetic acid induced ulcer models in rats, as evidenced by histopathological, histochemical, and biochemical examinations.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Lipid peroxidation: physiological levels and dual biological effects.

           Etsuo Niki (2009)
          Lipid peroxidation (LPO) has been shown to induce disturbance of membrane organization and functional loss and modification of proteins and DNA bases, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. At the same time, LPO products have been shown to act as redox signaling mediators. Free and ester forms of both polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol are important substrates for LPO in vivo and they are oxidized by both enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms to give a variety of products. The results of numerous studies reported in the literatures show that the levels of LPO products in plasma of healthy human subjects are below 1 muM and that the molar ratios of LPO products to the respective parent lipids are below 1/1000, that is, below 0.1%. The levels of LPO products in human erythrocytes were found to be higher than those in plasma. Considerable levels of cholesterol oxidation products were observed. Although many LPO products exert cytotoxicity, sublethal concentrations of LPO products induce cellular adaptive responses and enhance tolerance against subsequent oxidative stress through upregulation of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. This adaptive response is observed not only for chemically reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin J(2) but also for chemically stable compounds such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, hydroxylcholesterol, and lysophosphatidylcholine. Such opposite dual functions of LPO products imply that LPO, and probably oxidative stress in general, may exert both deleterious and beneficial effects in vivo. LPO as well as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has been shown to play an important role as a regulator of gene expression and cellular signaling messenger. In order to exert physiologically important functions as a regulator of gene expression and mediator of cellular signaling, the formation of LPO products must be strictly controlled and programmed. In contrast to LPO products by enzymatic oxidation, it appears difficult to regulate the formation of free radical-mediated LPO products. Even such unregulated LPO products may exert beneficial effects at low levels, but excessive unregulated LPO may lead to pathological disorders and diseases.
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            Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction

             H. OHKAWA,  N OHISHI,  K. YAGI (1979)
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              Histological demonstration of mucin after periodic acid.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 February 2017
                : 15
                : 2
                : 105-114
                Affiliations
                1Natural Compounds Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
                2Pharmacology Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
                3Pathology Department. National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Abdelsamed I. Elshamy, Tel: 20-233370931, E-mail: elshamynrc@ 123456yahoo.com

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30026-2
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30026-2
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF)
                Award ID: 6554
                This work was supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) (No. 6554).

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