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      Additions to Chaetothyriaceae (Chaetothyriales): Longihyalospora gen. nov. and Ceramothyrium longivolcaniforme , a new host record from decaying leaves of Ficus ampelas

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          A novel ascomycete genus, Longihyalospora , occurring on leaf litter of Ficus ampelas in Dahu Forest Area in Chiayi, Taiwan is described and illustrated. Longihyalospora is characterized by dark mycelium covering the upper leaf surface, elongate mycelial pellicle with ring of setae, pale brown to brown peridium, broadly obovoid, short pedicellate asci and hyaline, fusiform, elongated (tapering ends) and multi-septate ascospores with a thin mucilaginous sheath. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and SSU sequence data revealed Longihyalospora as a distinct genus within the Chaetothyriaceae with high bootstrap support. Moreover, based on morphological similarities, Chaetothyrium vermisporum transferred to the new genus. In addition, Ceramothyrium longivolcaniforme is reported for the first time on Ficus ampelas . Newly added species are compared with other similar species and comprehensive descriptions and micrographs are provided.

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at
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            In this paper we revisit the Capnodiaceae with notes on selected genera. Type specimens of the ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Anopeltis, Callebaea, Capnodaria, Echinothecium, Phragmocapnias and Scorias were re-examined, described and illustrated. Leptoxyphium is anamorphic Capnodiaceae and Polychaeton is a legitimate and earlier name for Capnodium, but in order to maintain nomenclatural stability we propose that the teleomorphic name should be conisdered for the approved lists of names currently in preparation for fungi. Notes are provided on the ascomycetous genus Scoriadopsis. However, we were unable to locate the type of this genus during the time frame of this study. The ascomycetous genera Aithaloderma, Ceramoclasteropsis, Hyaloscolecostroma and Trichomerium are excluded from Capnodiaceae on the basis of having ascostromata and trans-septate hyaline ascospores and should be accommodated in Chaetothyriaceae. Callebaea is excluded as the ascomata are thyriothecia and the genus is placed in Micropeltidaceae. Echinothecium is excluded as synonym of Sphaerellothecium and is transferred to Mycosphaerellaceae. The type specimen of Capnophaeum is lost and this should be considered as a doubtful genus. The coelomycetous Microxiphium is polyphyletic, while the status of Fumiglobus, Polychaetella and Tripospermum is unclear. Fourteen new collections of sooty moulds made in Thailand were isolated and sequenced. The nuclear large and small rDNA was partially sequenced and compared in a phylogeny used to build a more complete understanding of the relationships of genera in Capnodiaceae. Four new species are described and illustrated, while Phragmocapnias and Scorias are epitypified with fresh collections.
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              A Re-Evaluation of the Bitunicate Ascomycetes with Keys to Families and Genera


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                16 December 2019
                : 61
                : 91-109
                [1 ] Department of Plant Medicine, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai Thailand
                [2 ] Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand National Chiayi University Chiayi Taiwan
                [3 ] Key Laboratory for Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography of East Asia (KLPB), Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science Kunming China
                [4 ] Industrial Science and Management (International Program), Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University (Rangsit Center), Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12121, Thailand Thammasat University Pathumthani Thailand
                [5 ] Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius University of Mauritius Moka Mauritius
                [6 ] Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China Shenzhen University Shenzhen China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Chang-Hsin Kuo ( chkuo@ )

                Academic editor: A. Miller

                Danushka S. Tennakoon, Kasun M. Thambugala, Rajesh Jeewon, Sinang Hongsanan, Chang-Hsin Kuo, Kevin D. Hyde

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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