A novel ascomycete genus, Longihyalospora , occurring on leaf litter of Ficus ampelas in Dahu Forest Area in Chiayi, Taiwan is described and illustrated. Longihyalospora is characterized by dark mycelium covering the upper leaf surface, elongate mycelial pellicle with ring of setae, pale brown to brown peridium, broadly obovoid, short pedicellate asci and hyaline, fusiform, elongated (tapering ends) and multi-septate ascospores with a thin mucilaginous sheath. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU and SSU sequence data revealed Longihyalospora as a distinct genus within the Chaetothyriaceae with high bootstrap support. Moreover, based on morphological similarities, Chaetothyrium vermisporum transferred to the new genus. In addition, Ceramothyrium longivolcaniforme is reported for the first time on Ficus ampelas . Newly added species are compared with other similar species and comprehensive descriptions and micrographs are provided.