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      Current and emerging therapeutic targets for IBD

      Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          The management of IBD has undergone major advances with the development of biologic agents. Here, Markus Neurath provides an overview of current and future therapeutic targets for IBD, including insights into the mechanisms and rationale behind such approaches.

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          Most cited references 139

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          Maintenance infliximab for Crohn's disease: the ACCENT I randomised trial.

          We did a randomised controlled trial to assess the benefit of maintenance infliximab therapy in patients with active Crohn's disease who respond to a single infusion of infliximab. 573 patients with a score of at least 220 on the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) received a 5 mg/kg intravenous infusion of infliximab at week 0. After assessment of response at week 2, patients were randomly assigned repeat infusions of placebo at weeks 2 and 6 and then every 8 weeks thereafter until week 46 (group I), repeat infusions of 5 mg/kg infliximab at the same timepoints (group II), or 5 mg/kg infliximab at weeks 2 and 6 followed by 10 mg/kg (group III). The prespecified co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who responded at week 2 and were in remission (CDAI 54) and more than 54 weeks (21 to >54) for groups II and III, respectively, compared with 19 weeks (10-45) for group I (p=0.002 and p=0.0002, respectively). Infliximab safety was consistent with that seen in other trials of infliximab in Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. In particular, the incidence of serious infections was similar across treatment groups. Patients with Crohn's disease who respond to an initial dose of infliximab are more likely to be in remission at weeks 30 and 54, to discontinue corticosteroids, and to maintain their response for a longer period of time, if infliximab treatment is maintained every 8 weeks.
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            Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease.

            The comparative efficacy and safety of infliximab and azathioprine therapy alone or in combination for Crohn's disease are unknown. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we evaluated the efficacy of infliximab monotherapy, azathioprine monotherapy, and the two drugs combined in 508 adults with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease who had not undergone previous immunosuppressive or biologic therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of 5 mg of infliximab per kilogram of body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every 8 weeks plus daily oral placebo capsules; 2.5 mg of oral azathioprine per kilogram daily plus a placebo infusion on the standard schedule; or combination therapy with the two drugs. Patients received study medication through week 30 and could continue in a blinded study extension through week 50. Of the 169 patients receiving combination therapy, 96 (56.8%) were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission at week 26 (the primary end point), as compared with 75 of 169 patients (44.4%) receiving infliximab alone (P=0.02) and 51 of 170 patients (30.0%) receiving azathioprine alone (P<0.001 for the comparison with combination therapy and P=0.006 for the comparison with infliximab). Similar numerical trends were found at week 50. At week 26, mucosal healing had occurred in 47 of 107 patients (43.9%) receiving combination therapy, as compared with 28 of 93 patients (30.1%) receiving infliximab (P=0.06) and 18 of 109 patients (16.5%) receiving azathioprine (P<0.001 for the comparison with combination therapy and P=0.02 for the comparison with infliximab). Serious infections developed in 3.9% of patients in the combination-therapy group, 4.9% of those in the infliximab group, and 5.6% of those in the azathioprine group. Patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease who were treated with infliximab plus azathioprine or infliximab monotherapy were more likely to have a corticosteroid-free clinical remission than those receiving azathioprine monotherapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094458.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.

              Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, where they control multiple aspects of the inflammatory response. In particular, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that occurs in IBD impedes the resolution of inflammation and instead leads to disease perpetuation and tissue destruction. Recent studies suggest the existence of a network of regulatory cytokines that has important implications for disease progression. In this Review, we discuss the role of cytokines produced by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as their relevance to the future therapy of IBD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5045
                1759-5053
                February 1 2017
                February 1 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrgastro.2016.208
                28144028
                © 2017

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