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      Effect of Humulus lupulus L. (Hop) on Postmenopausal Sexual Dysfunction: A Randomized Clinical Trial


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          Female sexual dysfunction is a common distressing problem among women, which may result from reducing circulating endogenous estrogen. Humulus lupulus L. (hop) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and estrogenic properties. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of hop on postmenopausal sexual dysfunction.


          In the current randomized clinical trial, study populations consisted of 63 postmenopausal women who were randomly categorized into two groups. In the hop group ( N = 33), women received the vaginal gel containing Hop extract every day for seven days and then continued for two months, twice weekly. In the estradiol group ( N = 30), women were treated with vaginal estradiol (0.625 mg) over two 28-day cycles (21 days of therapy and seven days rest). The sexual function was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire before and after intervention.


          No statistically significant differences in FSFI scores (sexual desire, sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, satisfaction, orgasm, sexual pain, and total FSFI) ( P > 0.05) were noticed after treatment between the hop and estradiol groups.


          Vaginal hop was as effective as estradiol in improving the sexual dysfunction among postmenopausal women with no adverse events. This trial is registered with IRCT20210405050859N1.

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          Most cited references23

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          Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L.

          The present review describes the morphological, phytochemical and ethnopharmacological aspects of Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabinaceae) and summarizes the most interesting findings obtained in the preclinical and clinical research related to the plant. The female inflorescences of Humulus lupulus (hops), well-known as bittering agent in brewing industry, have long been used in traditional medicine mainly to treat sleep disturbances. However the sedative activity is still under investigation in order to recognize the active principles responsible for the neuropharmacological effects observed in laboratory animals, and their mechanism of action. Here we report the data from our experiments as well as those obtained from other researchers, focusing on the variability of the results. Other traditional applications of hops as stomachic, antibacterial and antifungal remedy have been supported by in vivo and/or in vitro investigations. In recent years some prenylated chalcones present in hops have received much attention for their biological effects: in particular, xanthohumol has been shown to exert cancer chemopreventive activity in in vitro experiments, while 8-prenylnaringenin has been characterized as one of the most potent phytoestrogens isolated until now. Nevertheless much additional work is needed to open up new biomedical application of these compounds.
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            Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus

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              A biopsychosocial approach to women's sexual function and dysfunction at midlife: A narrative review.

              A satisfying sex life is an important component of overall well-being, but sexual dysfunction is common, especially in midlife women. The aim of this review is (a) to define sexual function and dysfunction, (b) to present theoretical models of female sexual response, (c) to examine longitudinal studies of how sexual function changes during midlife, and (d) to review treatment options. Four types of female sexual dysfunction are currently recognized: Female Orgasmic Disorder, Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder, and Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction. However, optimal sexual function transcends the simple absence of dysfunction. A biopsychosocial approach that simultaneously considers physical, psychological, sociocultural, and interpersonal factors is necessary to guide research and clinical care regarding women's sexual function. Most longitudinal studies reveal an association between advancing menopause status and worsening sexual function. Psychosocial variables, such as availability of a partner, relationship quality, and psychological functioning, also play an integral role. Future directions for research should include deepening our understanding of how sexual function changes with aging and developing safe and effective approaches to optimizing women's sexual function with aging. Overall, holistic, biopsychosocial approaches to women's sexual function are necessary to fully understand and treat this key component of midlife women's well-being.

                Author and article information

                Int J Clin Pract
                Int J Clin Pract
                International Journal of Clinical Practice
                17 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 9528335
                1Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
                2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
                3Department of Biostatics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Samar Tharwat

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Zahra Vahedpoorfard et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 November 2022
                : 9 February 2023
                : 30 March 2023
                Funded by: Kashan University of Medical Sciences
                Award ID: 3231
                Research Article



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