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      Using social norms theory for health promotion in low-income countries


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          Social norms can greatly influence people’s health-related choices and behaviours. In the last few years, scholars and practitioners working in low- and mid-income countries (LMIC) have increasingly been trying to harness the influence of social norms to improve people’s health globally. However, the literature informing social norm interventions in LMIC lacks a framework to understand how norms interact with other factors that sustain harmful practices and behaviours. This gap has led to short-sighted interventions that target social norms exclusively without a wider awareness of how other institutional, material, individual and social factors affect the harmful practice. Emphasizing norms to the exclusion of other factors might ultimately discredit norms-based strategies, not because they are flawed but because they alone are not sufficient to shift behaviour. In this paper, we share a framework (already adopted by some practitioners) that locates norm-based strategies within the wider array of factors that must be considered when designing prevention programmes in LMIC.

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          Violence against women: an integrated, ecological framework.

          This article encourages the widespread adoption of an integrated, ecological framework for understanding the origins of gender-based violence. An ecological approach to abuse conceptualizes violence as a multifaceted phenomenon grounded in an interplay among personal, situational, and sociocultural factors. Although drawing on the conceptual advances of earlier theorists, this article goes beyond their work in three significant ways. First, it uses the ecological framework as a heuristic tool to organize the existing research base into an intelligible whole. Whereas other theorists present the framework as a way to think about violence, few have attempted to establish what factors emerge as predictive of abuse at each level of the social ecology. Second, this article integrates results from international and cross-cultural research together with findings from North American social science. And finally, the framework draws from findings related to all types of physical and sexual abuse of women to encourage a more integrated approach to theory building regarding gender-based abuse.
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            Managing social norms for persuasive impact

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              Norm Perception as a Vehicle for Social Change


                Author and article information

                Health Promot Int
                Health Promot Int
                Health Promotion International
                Oxford University Press
                June 2019
                22 March 2018
                22 March 2018
                : 34
                : 3
                : 616-623
                [1 ]Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
                [2 ]Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author. E-mail: ben.cislaghi@ 123456lshtm.ac.uk
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Funded by: UKaid from the Department for International Development through STRIVE
                Funded by: research consortium based at the LSHTM

                Public health
                social norms,harmful practices,intervention,community health promotion,low-income countries


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