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      Advancements in Plant and Microbe-Based Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Plant Pathogens

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          Abstract

          A large number of metallic nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using different plant extracts and microbes including bacteria, fungi viruses and microalgae. Some of these metallic nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activities against phytopathogens. Here, we summarized these green-synthesized nanoparticles from plants and microbes and their applications in the control of plant pathogens. We also discussed the potential deleterious effects of the metallic nanoparticles on plants and beneficial microbial communities associated with plants. Overall, this review calls for attention regarding the use of green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles in controlling plant diseases and clarification of the risks to plants, plant-associated microbial communities, and environments before using them in agriculture.

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          Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes.

          The selection and assembly of materials are central issues in the development of smaller, more flexible batteries. Cobalt oxide has shown excellent electrochemical cycling properties and is thus under consideration as an electrode for advanced lithium batteries. We used viruses to synthesize and assemble nanowires of cobalt oxide at room temperature. By incorporating gold-binding peptides into the filament coat, we formed hybrid gold-cobalt oxide wires that improved battery capacity. Combining virus-templated synthesis at the peptide level and methods for controlling two-dimensional assembly of viruses on polyelectrolyte multilayers provides a systematic platform for integrating these nanomaterials to form thin, flexible lithium ion batteries.
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            “Green” Nanotechnologies: Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using Plants

            While metal nanoparticles are being increasingly used in many sectors of the economy, there is growing interest in the biological and environmental safety of their production. The main methods for nanoparticle production are chemical and physical approaches that are often costly and potentially harmful to the environment. The present review is devoted to the possibility of metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts. This approach has been actively pursued in recent years as an alternative, efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles with specified properties. This review provides a detailed analysis of the various factors affecting the morphology, size, and yield of metal nanoparticles. The main focus is on the role of the natural plant biomolecules involved in the bioreduction of metal salts during the nanoparticle synthesis. Examples of effective use of exogenous biomatrices (peptides, proteins, and viral particles) to obtain nanoparticles in plant extracts are discussed.
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              ‘Green’ synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: applications for environmental remediation

              In materials science, “green” synthesis has gained extensive attention as a reliable, sustainable, and eco-friendly protocol for synthesizing a wide range of materials/nanomaterials including metal/metal oxides nanomaterials, hybrid materials, and bioinspired materials. As such, green synthesis is regarded as an important tool to reduce the destructive effects associated with the traditional methods of synthesis for nanoparticles commonly utilized in laboratory and industry. In this review, we summarized the fundamental processes and mechanisms of “green” synthesis approaches, especially for metal and metal oxide [e.g., gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper oxide (CuO), and zinc oxide (ZnO)] nanoparticles using natural extracts. Importantly, we explored the role of biological components, essential phytochemicals (e.g., flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, amides, and aldehydes) as reducing agents and solvent systems. The stability/toxicity of nanoparticles and the associated surface engineering techniques for achieving biocompatibility are also discussed. Finally, we covered applications of such synthesized products to environmental remediation in terms of antimicrobial activity, catalytic activity, removal of pollutants dyes, and heavy metal ion sensing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                nanomaterials
                Nanomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4991
                11 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 10
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; alibau201@ 123456gmail.com (M.A.A.); temoorahmed248@ 123456gmail.com (T.A.); afsana_07@ 123456yahoo.com (A.H.); rahila.impp@ 123456gmail.com (R.H.); an@ 123456zju.edu.cn (Q.A.)
                [2 ]Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230001, China
                [3 ]Department of Plant Pathology and Seed Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh
                [4 ]Department of Plant Pathology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh; masum@ 123456bsmrau.edu.bd
                [5 ]State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China; sungc01@ 123456sina.com
                Author notes
                Article
                nanomaterials-10-01146
                10.3390/nano10061146
                7353409
                32545239
                687fa68e-a885-4e81-aea0-2285dbe1f738
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                green synthesis,microorganisms,plant extracts,metallic nanoparticles,plant pathogens

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