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      Risk management profile of etoricoxib: an example of personalized medicine

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          Abstract

          The development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) selective for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (named coxibs) has been driven by the aim of reducing the incidence of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events associated with the administration of traditional (t) NSAIDs – mainly dependent on the inhibition of COX-1 in GI tract and platelets. However, their use has unravelled the important protective role of COX-2 for the cardiovascular (CV) system, mainly through the generation of prostacyclin. In a recent nested-case control study, we found that patients taking NSAIDs (both coxibs and tNSAIDs) had a 35% increase risk of myocardial infarction. The increased incidence of thrombotic events associated with profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent prostacyclin by coxibs and tNSAIDs can be mitigated, even if not obliterated, by a complete suppression of platelet COX-1 activity. However, most tNSAIDs and coxibs are functional COX-2 selective for the platelet (ie, they cause a profound suppression of COX-2 associated with insufficient inhibition of platelet COX-1 to translate into inhibition of platelet function), which explains their shared CV toxicity. The development of genetic and biochemical markers will help to identify the responders to NSAIDs or who are uniquely susceptible at developing thrombotic or GI events by COX inhibition. We will describe possible strategies to reduce the side effects of etoricoxib by using biochemical markers of COX inhibition, such as whole blood COX-2 and the assessment of prostacyclin biosynthesis in vivo.

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          Most cited references 79

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          The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis.

          The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA). The new criteria are as follows: 1) morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least 1 hour before maximal improvement; 2) soft tissue swelling (arthritis) of 3 or more joint areas observed by a physician; 3) swelling (arthritis) of the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist joints; 4) symmetric swelling (arthritis); 5) rheumatoid nodules; 6) the presence of rheumatoid factor; and 7) radiographic erosions and/or periarticular osteopenia in hand and/or wrist joints. Criteria 1 through 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks. Rheumatoid arthritis is defined by the presence of 4 or more criteria, and no further qualifications (classic, definite, or probable) or list of exclusions are required. In addition, a "classification tree" schema is presented which performs equally as well as the traditional (4 of 7) format. The new criteria demonstrated 91-94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for RA when compared with non-RA rheumatic disease control subjects.
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            Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial.

            Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may be associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, but only limited long-term data have been available for analysis. We report on the cardiovascular outcomes associated with the use of the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib in a long-term, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial designed to determine the effect of three years of treatment with rofecoxib on the risk of recurrent neoplastic polyps of the large bowel in patients with a history of colorectal adenomas. A total of 2586 patients with a history of colorectal adenomas underwent randomization: 1287 were assigned to receive 25 mg of rofecoxib daily, and 1299 to receive placebo. All investigator-reported serious adverse events that represented potential thrombotic cardiovascular events were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an external committee. A total of 46 patients in the rofecoxib group had a confirmed thrombotic event during 3059 patient-years of follow-up (1.50 events per 100 patient-years), as compared with 26 patients in the placebo group during 3327 patient-years of follow-up (0.78 event per 100 patient-years); the corresponding relative risk was 1.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.19 to 3.11; P=0.008). The increased relative risk became apparent after 18 months of treatment; during the first 18 months, the event rates were similar in the two groups. The results primarily reflect a greater number of myocardial infarctions and ischemic cerebrovascular events in the rofecoxib group. There was earlier separation (at approximately five months) between groups in the incidence of nonadjudicated investigator-reported congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, or cardiac failure (hazard ratio for the comparison of the rofecoxib group with the placebo group, 4.61; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.50 to 18.83). Overall and cardiovascular mortality was similar in the two groups. Among patients with a history of colorectal adenomas, the use of rofecoxib was associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2.

               Y Bakhle,  J R Vane,  R Botting (1997)
              Cyclooxygenase (COX), first purified in 1976 and cloned in 1988, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) from arachidonic acid. In 1991, several laboratories identified a product from a second gene with COX activity and called it COX-2. However, COX-2 was inducible, and the inducing stimuli included pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, implying a role for COX-2 in both inflammation and control of cell growth. The two isoforms of COX are almost identical in structure but have important differences in substrate and inhibitor selectivity and in their intracellular locations. Protective PGs, which preserve the integrity of the stomach lining and maintain normal renal function in a compromised kidney, are synthesized by COX-1. In addition to the induction of COX-2 in inflammatory lesions, it is present constitutively in the brain and spinal cord, where it may be involved in nerve transmission, particularly that for pain and fever. PGs made by COX-2 are also important in ovulation and in the birth process. The discovery of COX-2 has made possible the design of drugs that reduce inflammation without removing the protective PGs in the stomach and kidney made by COX-1. These highly selective COX-2 inhibitors may not only be anti-inflammatory but may also be active in colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                October 2008
                October 2008
                : 4
                : 5
                : 983-997
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine and Center of Excellence on Aging, “G. D’Annunzio” University School of Medicine, and “Gabriele D’Annunzio” University Foundation, CeSI, Chieti, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Paola Patrignani, Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze, dell’Invecchiamento, Università di Chieti, “G. D’Annunzio” and CeSI, Via dei Vestini, 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy, Tel +39 0871 3556775, Fax +39 0871 3556718, Email ppatrignani@ 123456unich.it
                Article
                tcrm-4-983
                2621416
                19209280
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
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