+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Multiple stressors produce differential transcriptomic patterns in a stream-dwelling salamander


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Global biodiversity is decreasing at an alarming rate and amphibians are at the forefront of this crisis. Understanding the factors that negatively impact amphibian populations and effectively monitoring their health are fundamental to addressing this epidemic. Plasma glucocorticoids are often used to assess stress in amphibians and other vertebrates, but these hormones can be extremely dynamic and impractical to quantify in small organisms. Transcriptomic responses to stress hormones in amphibians have been largely limited to laboratory models, and there have been few studies on vertebrates that have evaluated the impact of multiple stressors on patterns of gene expression. Here we examined the gene expression patterns in tail tissues of stream-dwelling salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis) chronically exposed to the stress hormone corticosterone under different temperature regimes.


          We found unique transcriptional signatures for chronic corticosterone exposure that were independent of temperature variation. Several of the corticosterone responsive genes are known to be involved in immune system response ( LY-6E), oxidative stress ( GSTM2 and TRX), and tissue repair ( A2M and FX) . We also found many genes to be influenced by temperature ( CIRBP, HSC71, HSP40, HSP90, HSP70, ZNF593). Furthermore, the expression patterns of some genes ( GSTM2, LY-6E, UMOD, ZNF593, CIRBP, HSP90) show interactive effects of temperature and corticosterone exposure, compared to each treatment alone. Through a series of experiments we also showed that stressor induced patterns of expression were largely consistent across ages, life cycle modes, and tissue regeneration.


          Outside of thermal stressors, the application of transcriptomes to monitor the health of non-human vertebrate systems has been vastly underinvestigated. Our study suggests that transcriptomic patterns harbor stressor specific signatures that can be highly informative for monitoring the diverse stressors of amphibian populations.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-019-5814-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 77

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The future of biodiversity.

          Recent extinction rates are 100 to 1000 times their pre-human levels in well-known, but taxonomically diverse groups from widely different environments. If all species currently deemed "threatened" become extinct in the next century, then future extinction rates will be 10 times recent rates. Some threatened species will survive the century, but many species not now threatened will succumb. Regions rich in species found only within them (endemics) dominate the global patterns of extinction. Although new technology provides details of habitat losses, estimates of future extinctions are hampered by our limited knowledge of which areas are rich in endemics.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The heat-shock response.

             S Lindquist (1985)
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk.

              We propose a model wherein chronic stress results in glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR) that, in turn, results in failure to down-regulate inflammatory response. Here we test the model in two viral-challenge studies. In study 1, we assessed stressful life events, GCR, and control variables including baseline antibody to the challenge virus, age, body mass index (BMI), season, race, sex, education, and virus type in 276 healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers were subsequently quarantined, exposed to one of two rhinoviruses, and followed for 5 d with nasal washes for viral isolation and assessment of signs/symptoms of a common cold. In study 2, we assessed the same control variables and GCR in 79 subjects who were subsequently exposed to a rhinovirus and monitored at baseline and for 5 d after viral challenge for the production of local (in nasal secretions) proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6). Study 1: After covarying the control variables, those with recent exposure to a long-term threatening stressful experience demonstrated GCR; and those with GCR were at higher risk of subsequently developing a cold. Study 2: With the same controls used in study 1, greater GCR predicted the production of more local proinflammatory cytokines among infected subjects. These data provide support for a model suggesting that prolonged stressors result in GCR, which, in turn, interferes with appropriate regulation of inflammation. Because inflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of a wide range of diseases, this model may have broad implications for understanding the role of stress in health.

                Author and article information

                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                11 June 2019
                11 June 2019
                : 20
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2160 264X, GRID grid.267360.6, Department of Biological Science, , University of Tulsa, ; Tulsa, OK 74104 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9473 1066, GRID grid.260957.f, Present Address: Department of Biological Sciences, Nicholls State University, ; Thibodaux, LA 70310 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2192 7145, GRID grid.167436.1, Present Address: Department of Biological Sciences, , University of New Hampshire, ; Durham, NH 03824 USA
                [4 ]Present Address: The Nature Conservancy, New York, NY 10001 USA
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001, National Science Foundation;
                Award ID: IIA-1301789
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019


                biomarkers, transcriptome, stress, salamander


                Comment on this article