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      COVID-19-Auswirkungen auf die Niere Translated title: COVID-19 effects on the kidney

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          Abstract

          Bei einer schweren Coronavirus-Erkrankung-2019 (COVID-19) ist neben der Lungenerkrankung selbst das akute Nierenversagen (ANV) eine der häufigsten und schwerwiegendsten Komplikationen. Das SARS-CoV-2-Virus konnte hierbei auch in der Niere nachgewiesen werden. Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen (CKD), dialysepflichtige sowie v. a. nierentransplantierte Patienten scheinen eine besonders vulnerable Population darzustellen. Die zunehmende Anzahl SARS-CoV-2-infizierter Patienten hat das Interesse an der genauen Pathophysiologie und Morphologie der Nierenschädigung sowie am direkten Virusnachweis in der Niere geweckt, der im Gegensatz zur Lunge insgesamt schwieriger zu führen ist. Hierzu liegen mittlerweile Daten aus Autopsie- und Nierenbiopsiestudien mit unterschiedlichen Patientenzahlen und von sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität vor. Während der Nachweis von SARS-CoV-2-RNA im Nierengewebe mit gut reproduzierbaren Ergebnissen erfolgt, ist insbesondere der Virusnachweis mittels Elektronenmikroskopie schwierig und wird aufgrund zahlreicher Artefakte derzeit kritisch diskutiert. Die genauen direkten oder indirekten Effekte von SARS-CoV‑2 auf die Niere sind noch nicht im Detail bekannt und derzeit der Fokus intensiver Forschung.

          Translated abstract

          Apart from pulmonary disease, acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most frequent and most severe organ complications in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV‑2 virus has been detected in renal tissue. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) before and on dialysis and specifically renal transplant patients represent a particularly vulnerable population. The increasing number of COVID-19 infected patients with renal involvement led to an evolving interest in the analysis of its pathophysiology, morphology and modes of virus detection in the kidney. Meanwhile, there are ample data from several autopsy and kidney biopsy studies that differ in the quantity of cases as well as in their quality. While the detection of SARS-CoV‑2 RNA in the kidney leads to reproducible results, the use of electron microscopy for visualisation of the virus is difficult and currently critically discussed due to various artefacts. The exact contribution of indirect or direct effects on the kidney in COVID-19 are not yet known and are currently the focus of intensive research.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

            Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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              Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area

              There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Kerstin.Amann@uk-erlangen.de
                Journal
                Pathologe
                Pathologe
                Der Pathologe
                Springer Medizin (Heidelberg )
                0172-8113
                1432-1963
                1 February 2021
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411668.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9935 6525, Abt. Nephropathologie, , Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, ; Krankenhausstr. 8-10, 91054 Erlangen, Deutschland
                [2 ]GRID grid.412301.5, ISNI 0000 0000 8653 1507, Institut für Pathologie & Medizinische Klinik II (Nephrologie), Sektion Translationale Nephropathologie, , Universitätsklinikum der RWTH Aachen, ; Aachen, Deutschland
                [3 ]GRID grid.13648.38, ISNI 0000 0001 2180 3484, Institut für Pathologie, Sektion Nephropathologie, , Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, ; Martinistr. 52, 20146 Hamburg, Deutschland
                [4 ]GRID grid.411668.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9935 6525, Medizinische Klinik 3, , Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, ; Erlangen, Deutschland
                [5 ]GRID grid.411668.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9935 6525, Virologie, , Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, ; Erlangen, Deutschland
                [6 ]GRID grid.411668.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9935 6525, Pathologisches Institut, , Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, ; Erlangen, Deutschland
                Author notes
                [Schwerpunktherausgeber]

                W. Roth, Mainz

                P. Boor, Aachen

                Article
                899
                10.1007/s00292-020-00899-1
                7849614
                33527157
                © Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Categories
                Schwerpunkt: COVID-19

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