Blog
About

10
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Hippocampus Structures of Rats Exposed to TCDD and High Doses of Tocopherol and Acetylsalicylic Acid

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 56

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in CNS: their role and involvement in neurological disorders.

          Three enzyme systems, cyclooxygenases that generate prostaglandins, lipoxygenases that form hydroxy derivatives and leukotrienes, and epoxygenases that give rise to epoxyeicosatrienoic products, metabolize arachidonic acid after its release from neural membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A(2). Lysophospholipids, the other products of phospholipase A(2) reactions, are either reacylated or metabolized to platelet-activating factor. Under normal conditions, these metabolites play important roles in synaptic function, cerebral blood flow regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and gene expression. Increased activities of cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases under pathological situations such as ischemia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease produce neuroinflammation involving vasodilation and vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, leukocyte chemotaxis and release of cytokines, and oxidative stress. These are closely associated with the neural cell injury which occurs in these neurological conditions. The metabolic products of docosahexaenoic acid, through these enzymes, generate a new class of lipid mediators, namely docosatrienes and resolvins. These metabolites antagonize the effect of metabolites derived from arachidonic acid. Recent studies provide insight into how these arachidonic acid metabolites interact with each other and other bioactive mediators such as platelet-activating factor, endocannabinoids, and docosatrienes under normal and pathological conditions. Here, we review present knowledge of the functions of cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and epoxygenases in brain and their association with neurodegenerative diseases.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Dioxin: a review of its environmental effects and its aryl hydrocarbon receptor biology.

             Anil Mandal (2005)
            A highly persistent trace environmental contaminant and one of the most potent toxicants known is dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or TCDD). TCDD induces a broad spectrum of biological responses, including induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), disruption of normal hormone signaling pathways, reproductive and developmental defects, immunotoxicity, liver damage, wasting syndrome, and cancer. Its classification was upgraded from "possible human carcinogen" (group 2B) to "human carcinogen" (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1997. Exposure to TCDD may also cause changes in sex ratio, and tumor promotion in other animals. Because of the growing public and scientific concern, toxicological studies have been initiated to analyze the short- and long-term effects of dioxin. TCDD brings about a wide variety of toxic and biochemical effects via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated signaling pathways. Essential steps in this adaptive mechanism include AhR binding of ligand in the cytoplasm of cells associated with two molecules of chaperone heatshock protein (Hsp90) and AhR interactive protein, translocation of the receptor to the nucleus, dimerization with the Ah receptor nuclear translocator, and binding of this heterodimeric transcription factor (present in CYP1A) to dioxin-responsive elements upstream of promoters that regulate the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Tocotrienol offers better protection than tocopherol from free radical-induced damage of rat bone.

              1. Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. 2. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and alpha-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. 3. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of alpha-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). 4. Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of alpha-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2015
                24 March 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                Department of Nervous System Diseases, The Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Bartla 5 Street, 51-618 Wrocław, Poland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Viness Pillay

                Article
                10.1155/2015/645603
                4388018
                Copyright © 2015 Joanna Rosińczuk et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article